Sarah Zarmsky

Postgraduate Research Student
Essex Law School - Human Rights Centre
Research Assistant
Essex Law School
 Sarah Zarmsky


Ask me about
  • New Technologies, Social Media, International Human Rights Law, International Criminal Law, Public International Law, Content Moderation


Sarah is a PhD candidate with the Human Rights Centre. Her research focuses on accountability for online harms under international criminal law. Prior to starting her PhD, Sarah received her Bachelor's degree in Psychology with minors in Legal Studies and French from Brandeis University in the United States, and her LLM in Public International Law from Leiden University in The Netherlands. During her time at Leiden University, Sarah served as writing coordinator and a researcher for the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum International Humanitarian Law Clinic, where she assisted in writing and editing a comprehensive report on digitally-derived evidence in international criminal law and human rights fact-finding missions. She has also completed internships with the International Criminal Court, the International Bar Association, and the International Court of Justice. In her spare time, Sarah volunteers as a digital verification researcher for the Cameroon Database of Atrocities and Bellingcat. On campus, she is involved with the Digital Verification Unit within the Human Rights Centre Clinic, and previously served as a Research Officer for the Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project. Selected publications and presentations: 'Westworld and Human Rights' (OpinioJuris, 29 October 2021) Why Seeing Should Not Always Be Believing: Considerations Regarding the Use of Digital Reconstruction Technology in International Law (Oxford Journal of International Criminal Justice, Special Issue on New Technologies and the Investigation of International Crimes, 3 July 2021) To Delete or Not to Delete: Considerations for the removal of harmful content by social media websites (ESIL-Kraków-Leiden Second Symposium on Exploring the Frontiers of International Law in Cyberspace, presentation 25 June 2021) Digital Evidence & The Black Lives Matter Movement (OpinioJuris, 12 June 2020)


  • LLM, Public International Law Leiden University (2020)

  • BA, Psychology with minors in Legal Studies and French Brandeis University (2018)

Research and professional activities



Colchester Campus