Dr Carlos Solar

Department of Sociology and Criminology
Dr Carlos Solar
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 874839

  • Location

    5A.315, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    Fridays 14:00-16:00 at Zoom (please stay in the waiting room until you are asked in)



Carlos Solar is Lecturer in Sociology and member of the Centre for Criminology since joining Essex in 2020. He previously was British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Oxford. His research interests fit broadly under the areas of democratic governance; criminology, mostly on policing, corruption, and organised crime; and military studies. Part of his current research focuses on cybersecurity, regulation of digital technologies, and weapons transfers. Carlos is writing-up a book project tentatively titled, Cybersecurity Governance: States and Digital Space. Carlos is also editing a book-length project on military governance. This research builds on his current work in the politics of control and effectiveness of the armed forces in light of changing roles and missions, including public security. He is the author of Government and Governance of Security: The Politics of Organised Crime in Chile (New York: Routledge, 2018), and his peer-reviewed articles have been published in journals, such as, Global Crime, Policy Studies, British Politics, Journal of Strategic Studies, Politics & Policy, International Studies, Contemporary Politics, International Politics, Democracy and Security, Peace Review, Latin American Policy, and Mexican Studies. From 2015 to 2017 Carlos worked at the University of York as a research fellow in the Police Knowledge Fund (PKF), awarded by the College of Policing, the Higher Education Funding Council for England and the Home Office, to increase evidence-based policy in key areas of policing. This project created a partnership with North Yorkshire Police to review and improve their policing and mental health governance. In May 2016, Carlos was awarded with the prize for the Best Article published by a member of the Defence, Public Security and Democracy section of the Latin American Studies Association (LASA). During his doctorate, he held short-term visiting research appointments at the International Centre for Comparative Criminology at the University of Montreal, and in the Latin American Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Carlos is on the editorial board for the journal Alternatives: Global, Local, Political.


  • PhD Politics University of York, (2016)


University of Essex

  • Lecturer, Sociology, University of Essex (2020 - present)

Other academic

  • British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow, Latin American Centre, University of Oxford (2018 - 2020)

  • Research Fellow in Public Policy, Politics, University of York (2015 - 2018)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Armed Forces and Society

Open to supervise

Criminal Policy

Open to supervise

Cybersecurity and cyber defence

Open to supervise


Open to supervise

Security Governance

Open to supervise

States and Organized Crime

Open to supervise


Open to supervise

Current research

Civil-military Relations

Crime and Violence in Latin America

Cybersecurity Governance

Digital Technologies and Governance

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Quantitative Research: Crime and Inequality Across the Life Course (SC208)

  • Global Security Challenges (SC561)


Journal articles (28)

Hochmüller, M., Solar, C. and Pérez Ricart, CA., (2024). Militarism and Militarisation in Latin America. Alternatives: global, local, political

Solar, C., (2023). Exploring the multilevel nature of police confidence in Brazil. The Police Journal. 96 (2), 303-317

Solar, C., (2023). Crime Victimization, Trust and Performance Evaluation of Donald Trump: Exploring Gender and Race Determinants. International Annals of Criminology. 61 (1), 82-102

Solar, C., (2023). Access to the Internet and Declining Democracy in Venezuela. Journal of Information Policy. 13, 114-139

Solar, C. and Smith, M., (2022). Austerity and governance: coordinating policing and mental health policy in the UK. Policy Studies. 43 (2), 352-369

Solar, C., (2022). Trust in the military in post-authoritarian societies. Current Sociology. 70 (3), 317-337

Solar, C., (2022). Thinking beyond averages: Quantile regression modelling and military expenditure. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique. 155 (1), 82-105

Solar, C. and Smith, M., (2021). Decentralisation and central-local relations: the case of policing and mental health in England. British Politics. 16 (3), 254-271

Solar, C., (2021). Forced Disappearances and the Inequalities of a Global Crime. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 46 (1), 17-22

Solar, C., (2020). China’s weapons transfer in the Western hemisphere. Journal of Strategic Studies. 43 (2), 217-244

Solar, C., (2020). Introducing Change in Public Service Organizations under Austerity: The Complex Case of the Governance of the Defence in the United Kingdom. Politics and Policy. 48 (4), 700-726

Solar, C., (2020). Cybersecurity and cyber defence in the emerging democracies. Journal of Cyber Policy. 5 (3), 392-412

Solar, C., (2019). Chile’s Peacekeeping and the Post-UN Intervention Scenario in Haiti. International Studies. 56 (4), 272-291

Solar, C., (2019). Civil-military relations and human security in a post-dictatorship. Journal of Strategic Studies. 42 (3-4), 507-531

Solar, C., (2019). Defence ministers and the politics of civil-military labour in Chile: a dialogue with Huntington’s The Soldier and the State. Contemporary Politics. 25 (4), 419-437

Solar, C., (2019). Reassessing Chilean international security. International Politics. 56 (5), 569-584

Solar, C., (2018). Non-State Security in Chile. Peace Review. 30 (2), 238-245

Solar, C., (2017). Book Review: Military missions in democratic Latin America. International Affairs. 93 (5), 1290-1291

Solar, C., (2017). Book Review: Reflections on memory and democracy. International Affairs. 93 (3), 761-763

Solar, C., (2016). Book Review: Handbook of Governance and Security. Political Studies Review. 14 (1), 90-91

Solar, C., (2015). Governance of Defense and Policymaking in Chile. Latin American Policy. 6 (2), 205-225

Solar, C., (2015). Book Review: International Relations: International Security: The Contemporary Agenda. Political Studies Review. 13 (1), 102-103

Solar, C., (2015). The inter-institutional governance of money laundering: an in-depth look at Chile following re-democratisation. Global Crime. 16 (4), 328-350

Solar, C., (2015). Police Bribery: Is Corruption Fostering Dissatisfaction with the Political System?. Democracy and Security. 11 (4), 373-394

Solar, C., (2014). State, Violence, and Security in Mexico. Mexican Studies. 30 (1), 241-255

Solar, C., (2013). Book Review: Living in the Crossfire: Favela Residents, Drug Dealers, and Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro. Bulletin of Latin American Research. 32 (4), 508-509

Solar, C., (2013). Book Review: Corruption and Politics in Latin America: National and Regional Dynamics. Latin American Policy. 4 (1), 210-214

Solar, C., (2012). Book Review: Police Reform in Mexico: Informal Politics and the Challenge of Institutional Change. Democracy and Security. 8 (4), 415-418

Books (4)

Solar, C., (2024). Governing the Military The Armed Forces Under Democracy in Chile. 1526161842. 9781526161840

Solar, C., (2023). Cybersecurity Governance in Latin America States, Threats, and Alliances. State University of New York Press. 1438491425. 9781438491417

Solar, C. and Pérez Ricart, CA., (2022). Crime, Violence, and Justice in Latin America. Routledge. 9781032206844

Solar, C., (2018). Government and Governance of Security: The Politics of Organised Crime in Chile. Routledge. 978-1138064843

Book chapters (5)

Solar, C. and Perez Ricart, CA., (2022). Final Remarks. In: Crime, Violence, and Justice in Latin America. Routledge. 254- 264

Solar, C. and Perez Ricart, CA., (2022). Introduction. In: Crime, Violence, and Justice in Latin America. Routledge. 1- 21

Solar, C. and Ricart, CAP., (2022). Final remarks: Security in Latin America post-COVID-19. In: Crime, Violence, and Justice in Latin America. 254- 264

Solar, C. and Ricart, CAP., (2022). Introduction: Crime, violence, and justice in Latin America. In: Crime, Violence, and Justice in Latin America. 1- 21

Solar, C., (2019). Chile: Defense Governance and Democratic Consolidation. In: Civil-Military Relations: Control and Efectiveness Across Regimes. Editors: Bruneau, TC. and Croissant, A., . Lynne Rienner. 103- 117

Reports and Papers (2)

Solar, C., (2021). Militarism and the Militarization of Public Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

Solar, C., Urbina, J. and Crowther, GA., (2020). Chilean Military Culture

+44 (0) 1206 874839


5A.315, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

Fridays 14:00-16:00 at Zoom (please stay in the waiting room until you are asked in)

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