Dr Ravi Shekhar

School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering (CSEE)
Dr Ravi Shekhar



I am a Lecturer at the University of Essex. Before that, I was a post-doctoral researcher at the Queen Mary University of London, working with Professor Matthew Purver on the EMBEDDIA and SoDeStream projects. I obtained a Ph.D. at DISI, the University of Trento. I was supervised by Dr. Raffaella Bernardi, University of Trento, and co-supervised by Prof. Raquel Fernández, University of Amsterdam. My research interests include Natural Language Processing, Cross-Lingual Representation, Language and Vision Interaction, and Social Media Analysis.


Google Scholar.

Semantic Scholar.


  • Ph.D. University of Trento, (2019)


University of Essex

  • Lecturer in Natural Language Processing, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex (1/2023 - present)

Other academic

  • Post-Doctoral Researcher, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London (6/2019 - 1/2023)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Multi-model NLP

Open to supervise

Conversation AI

Open to supervise

Social Media Analysis

Open to supervise

Cross-Lingual Representation

Open to supervise

Social Media Analysis

Open to supervise

Assessing and mitigating online harms

Open to supervise

NLP for social media

Open to supervise

Abusive language detection

Open to supervise

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Text Analytics (CE807)


Journal articles (3)

Shekhar, R., Pranjić, M., Pollak, S., Pelicon, A. and Purver, M., Automating News Comment Moderation with Limited Resources: Benchmarking in Croatian and Estonian. Journal for Language Technology and Computational Linguistics. 34 (1), 49-79

Ranathunga, S., Lee, E-SA., Prifti Skenduli, M., Shekhar, R., Alam, M. and Kaur, R., (2023). Neural Machine Translation for Low-resource Languages: A Survey. ACM Computing Surveys. 55 (11), 1-37

Pelicon, A., Shekhar, R., Škrlj, B., Purver, M. and Pollak, S., (2021). Investigating cross-lingual training for offensive language detection. PeerJ Computer Science. 7, e559-e559

Conferences (16)

Shekhar, R., Karan, M. and Purver, M., CoRAL: a Context-aware Croatian Abusive Language Dataset

Healey, P., Khare, P., Castro, I., Tyson, G., Karan, M., Shekhar, R., McQuistin, S., Perkins, C. and Purver, M., Power and Vulnerability: Managing Sensitive Language in Organisational Communication

Venugopal, G., Pramod, D. and Shekhar, R., (2022). CWID-hi: A Dataset for Complex Word Identification in Hindi Text

Zosa, E., Shekhar, R., Karan, M. and Purver, M., (2021). Not All Comments are Equal: Insights into Comment Moderation from a Topic-Aware Model

Pelicon, A., Shekhar, R., Martinc, M., Škrlj, B., Purver, M. and Pollak, S., (2021). Zero-shot Cross-lingual Content Filtering: Offensive Language and Hate Speech Detection

Pollak, S., Šikonja, MR., Purver, M., Boggia, M., Shekhar, R., Pranjić, M., Salmela, S., Krustok, I., Paju, T., Linden, CG., Leppänen, L., Zosa, E., Ulčar, M., Freienthal, L., Traat, S., Cabrera-Diego, LA., Martinc, M., Lavrač, N., Škrlj, B., Žnidaršič, M., Pelicon, A., Koloski, B., Podpečan, V., Kranjc, J., Sheehan, S., Boros, E., Moreno, JG., Doucet, A. and Toivonen, H., (2021). EMBEDDIA Tools, Datasets and Challenges: Resources and Hackathon Contributions

Shekhar, R., Takmaz, E., Fernández, R. and Bernardi, R., (2019). Evaluating the Representational Hub of Language and Vision Models

Shekhar, R., Venkatesh, A., Baumgärtner, T., Bruni, E., Plank, B., Bernardi, R. and Fernández, R., (2019). Beyond task success: A closer look at jointly learning to see, ask, and

Shekhar, R., Testoni, A., Fernández, R. and Bernardi, R., (2019). Jointly learning to see, ask, decide when to stop, and then guesswhat

Shekhar, R., Baumgärtner, T., Venkatesh, A., Bruni, E., Bernardi, R. and Fernandez, R., (2018). Ask no more: Deciding when to guess in referential visual dialogue

Shekhar, R., Pezzelle, S., Klimovich, Y., Herbelot, A., Nabi, M., Sangineto, E. and Bernardi, R., (2017). FOIL it! Find One mismatch between Image and Language caption

Shekhar, R., Pezzelle, S., Herbelot, A., Nabi, M., Sangineto, E. and Bernardi, R., (2017). Vision and language integration: Moving beyond objects

Pezzelle, S., Shekhar, R. and Bernardi, R., (2016). Building a Bagpipe with a Bag and a Pipe: Exploring Conceptual Combination in Vision

Shekhar, R. and Jawahar, CV., (2013). Document Specific Sparse Coding for Word Retrieval

Shekhar, R. and Jawahar, CV., (2012). Word Image Retrieval Using Bag of Visual Words

Krishnan, P., Shekhar, R. and Jawahar, CV., (2012). Content level access to digital library of India pages