People

Dr Paul Freeman

Senior Lecturer
School of Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences
Dr Paul Freeman

Profile

Biography

Paul is programme lead on BSc Sports and Exercise Science and co-programme lead on MSc Sport and Exercise Psychology. He is Chartered Psychologist and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Paul’s research interests focus on cognitive and social factors (including cognitive appraisals, social support, and motivation) underpinning performance under pressure and physical activity behaviour. He possesses excellent methodological and statistical skills, and has conducted laboratory-based experiments, survey designs, single-subject multiple baseline designs, qualitative research (focus groups and interviews), and systematic literature reviews. Paul has received research funding from a range of organisations, including the International Olympic Committee, Active Essex, Essex County Council, and the Economic and Social Research Council. From 2019-21, he was co-lead of the evaluation team working on the Essex Local Delivery Pilot funded by Sport England. He is currently leading the evaluation of the Prevention and Enablement Model, which is testing how the health and social care system in Essex can use physical activity to enable independence, improve population health and develop inclusive communities. He has also designed and delivered a range of workshops on topics such as Behaviour Change Models and Psychological Skills Training.

Qualifications

  • Ph.D. Sport and Health Sciences University of Exeter,

  • BSc Hons., Exercise and Sport Sciences (1st class) University of Exeter,

Appointments

University of Essex

  • Lecturer>Senior Lecturer, School of Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences, University of Essex (1/9/2014 - present)

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Professional Skills and Development 1 (SE101)

  • Sport and Exercise Psychology (SE104)

  • Professional Skills 2 (SE201)

  • Sport and Performance Psychology (SE207)

  • Research Methods in Sport and Exercise (SE230)

  • Applied Sports Psychology (SE304)

  • Issues in Sport and Exercise Science (SE305)

  • Research Project (SE309)

  • Research Project (SE740)

  • Professional practice in sport and exercise psychology (SE741)

  • Applied techniques in sport and exercise psychology (SE742)

  • Cognitive Processes in Sport and Exercise Psychology (SE744)

  • Social psychology in sport and exercise (SE743)

Previous supervision

William Richard Low
William Richard Low
Thesis title: Pressure Training in Sport: Factors to Enhance Design and Delivery of Applied Interventions
Degree subject: Sport and Exercise Psychology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 30/8/2022
Catherine Elizabeth Lutz
Catherine Elizabeth Lutz
Thesis title: An Exploration Into Pre-Game Speeches and Their Influence on Psychological and Performance Outcomes in Basketball
Degree subject: Sport and Exercise Psychology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 19/8/2022
Adrian Hase
Adrian Hase
Thesis title: Challenge and Threat States: An Examination of Variance Components, Interventions, and Performance
Degree subject: Sport and Exercise Psychology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 15/8/2019
Di Fu
Di Fu
Thesis title: Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Received Support in Sport
Degree subject: Sport and Exercise Science
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 22/5/2019
Elliott Flowers
Elliott Flowers
Thesis title: Exploring the Role of Beliefs on Green Exercise Behaviours and Outcomes.
Degree subject: Sport and Exercise Psychology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 12/9/2018

Publications

Journal articles (45)

Low, W., Butt, J., Freeman, P., Stoker, M. and Maynard, I., (2022). Effective Delivery of Pressure Training: Perspectives of Athletes and Sport Psychologists. Sport Psychologist. 36 (3), 162-170

Low, W., Freeman, P., Butt, J., Stoker, M. and Maynard, I., (2022). The Role and Creation of Pressure in Training: Perspectives of Athletes and Sport Psychologists. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-21

Liew, BXW., Syrett, J., Freeman, P. and Evans, DW., (2022). Pain-related fear of movement dynamics in individuals with and without low back pain participating in weightlifting and/or powerlifting training. PLOS ONE. 17 (10), e0276983-e0276983

McLoughlin, E., Arnold, R., Freeman, P., Turner, J., Roberts, G., Fletcher, D., Slavich, G. and Moore, L., (2022). Lifetime Stressor Exposure and Psychophysiological Reactivity and Habituation to Repeated Acute Social Stressors. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1-12

Pettican, A., Goodman, B., Bryant, W., Beresford, P., Freeman, P., Gladwell, V., Kilbride, C. and Speed, E., (2022). Doing together: reflections on facilitating the co-production of participatory action research with marginalised populations. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 1-18

Low, W., Freeman, P., Sandercock, G., Winter, M., Butt, J. and Maynard, I., (2021). Pressure Training for Performance Domains: A Meta-Analysis. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 0 (1), 149-163

Fu, D., Hase, A., Goolamallee, M., Godwin, G. and Freeman, P., (2021). The Effects of Support (In)Adequacy on Self-Confidence and Performance: Two Experimental Studies. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 10 (1), 15-26

Behnke, M., Hase, A., Kaczmarek, LD. and Freeman, P., (2021). Blunted cardiovascular reactivity may serve as an index of psychological task disengagement in the motivated performance situations.. Scientific Reports. 11 (1), 18083-

Hase, A., aan het Rot, M., de Miranda Azevedo, R. and Freeman, P., (2020). Threat-related motivational disengagement: Integrating blunted cardiovascular reactivity to stress into the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 33 (4), 355-369

Hase, A., O'Brien, J., Moore, L. and Freeman, P., (2019). The relationship between challenge and threat states and performance: A systematic review. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 8 (2), 123-144

Hase, A., Hood, J., Moore, LJ. and Freeman, P., (2019). The influence of self-talk on challenge and threat states and performance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 45, 101550-101550

Moore, LJ., Freeman, P., Hase, A., Solomon-Moore, E. and Arnold, R., (2019). How Consistent Are Challenge and Threat Evaluations? A Generalizability Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology. 10 (JULY), 1778-

Hase, A., Gorrie-Stone, T. and Freeman, P., (2019). Tyrosine intake and cardiovascular responses in a motivated performance situation. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 8 (1), 80-92

Moore, LJ., Young, T., Freeman, P. and Sarkar, M., (2018). Adverse life events, cardiovascular responses, and sports performance under pressure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 28 (1), 340-347

Flowers, EP., Freeman, P. and Gladwell, VF., (2018). Enhancing the acute psychological benefits of green exercise: An investigation of expectancy effects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 39, 213-221

Moll, T., Rees, T. and Freeman, P., (2017). Enacted support and golf-putting performance: The role of support type and support visibility. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 30, 30-37

Sammy, N., Anstiss, PA., Moore, LJ., Freeman, P., Wilson, MR. and Vine, SJ., (2017). The Effects of Arousal Reappraisal on Stress Responses, Performance and Attention. Anxiety, Stress and Coping. 30 (6), 619-629

Coffee, P., Freeman, P. and Allen, MS., (2017). The TASS-Q: The Team-referent Availability of Social Support Questionnaire. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 33, 55-65

Flowers, EP., Freeman, P. and Gladwell, VF., (2017). The Development of Three Questionnaires to Assess Beliefs about Green Exercise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (10), 1172-1172

Flowers, EP., Freeman, P. and Gladwell, V., (2016). A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels. BMC Public Health. 16 (1), 420-

Moore, LJ., Vine, SJ., Wilson, MR. and Freeman, P., (2015). Reappraising Threat: How to Optimize Performance Under Pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 37 (3), 339-343

Coussens, AH., Rees, T. and Freeman, P., (2015). Applying generalizability theory to examine the antecedents of perceived coach support. Journal of sport & exercise psychology. 37 (1), 51-62

Soundy, A., Freeman, P., Stubbs, B., Probst, M., Roskell, C. and Vancampfort, D., (2015). The Psychosocial Consequences of Sports Participation for Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: A Metasynthesis Review. Advances in Psychiatry. 2015, 1-8

Freeman, P., Coffee, P., Moll, T., Rees, T. and Sammy, N., (2014). The ARSQ: The Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 36 (2), 189-202

Hamlyn-Williams, CC., Freeman, P. and Parfitt, G., (2014). Acute affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise sessions in adolescent girls: an observational study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 6 (1), creators-Freeman=3APaul=3A=3A

Moore, LJ., Vine, SJ., Wilson, MR. and Freeman, P., (2014). Examining the antecedents of challenge and threat states: The influence of perceived required effort and support availability. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 93 (2), 267-273

Soundy, A., Stubbs, B., Freeman, P., Coffee, P. and Roskell, C., (2014). Factors influencing patients' hope in stroke and spinal cord injury: A narrative review. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 21 (5), 210-218

Soundy, A., Freeman, P., Stubbs, B., Probst, M., Coffee, P. and Vancampfort, D., (2014). The transcending benefits of physical activity for individuals with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-ethnography. Psychiatry Research. 220 (1-2), 11-19

Soundy, A., Freeman, P., Stubbs, B., Probst, M. and Vancampfort, D., (2014). The value of social support to encourage people with schizophrenia to engage in physical activity: an international insight from specialist mental health physiotherapists. Journal of Mental Health. 23 (5), 256-260

Hamlyn-Williams, CC., Freeman, P. and Parfitt, G., (2014). Acute affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise sessions in adolescent girls: an observational study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 6 (1), 35-

Vine, SJ., Freeman, P., Moore, LJ., Chandra-Ramanan, R. and Wilson, MR., (2013). Evaluating stress as a challenge is associated with superior attentional control and motor skill performance: Testing the predictions of the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 19 (3), 185-194

Moore, LJ., Vine, SJ., Freeman, P. and Wilson, MR., (2013). Quiet eye training promotes challenge appraisals and aids performance under elevated anxiety. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 11 (2), 169-183

Moore, LJ., Wilson, MR., Vine, SJ., Coussens, AH. and Freeman, P., (2013). Champ or Chump?: Challenge and Threat States During Pressurized Competition. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 35 (6), 551-562

Moore, LJ., Vine, SJ., Wilson, MR. and Freeman, P., (2012). The effect of challenge and threat states on performance: An examination of potential mechanisms. Psychophysiology. 49 (10), 1417-1425

Rees, T., Freeman, P., Bell, S. and Bunney, R., (2012). Three Generalizability Studies of the Components of Perceived Coach Support. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 34 (2), 238-251

Freeman, P., Coffee, P. and Rees, T., (2011). The PASS-Q: The Perceived Available Support in Sport Questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 33 (1), 54-74

McGrath, JS., Moore, L., Wilson, MR., Freeman, P. and Vine, S., (2011). ‘CHALLENGE’ AND ‘THREAT’ STATES IN SURGERY: IMPLICATIONS FOR SURGICAL PERFORMANCE AND TRAINING. BJU International. 108 (6), 795-796

Rees, T. and Freeman, P., (2010). Social Support and Performance in a Golf-Putting Experiment. The Sport Psychologist. 24 (3), 333-348

Freeman, P. and Rees, T., (2010). Perceived social support from team-mates: Direct and stress-buffering effects on self-confidence. European Journal of Sport Science. 10 (1), 59-67

Freeman, P. and Rees, T., (2009). How Does Perceived Support Lead to Better Performance? An Examination of Potential Mechanisms. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 21 (4), 429-441

Freeman, P., Rees, T. and Hardy, L., (2009). An Intervention to Increase Social Support and Improve Performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 21 (2), 186-200

Rees, T. and Freeman, P., (2009). Social Support Moderates the Relationship Between Stressors and Task Performance Through Self-Efficacy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 28 (2), 244-263

Freeman, P. and Rees, T., (2008). The effects of perceived and received support on objective performance outcome. European Journal of Sport Science. 8 (6), 359-368

Rees, T. and Freeman, P., (2007). The effects of perceived and received support on self-confidence. Journal of Sports Sciences. 25 (9), 1057-1065

Rees, T., Hardy, L. and Freeman, P., (2007). Stressors, social support, and effects upon performance in golf. Journal of Sports Sciences. 25 (1), 33-42

Book chapters (2)

Freeman, P., (2021). Social support. In: Stress, Well-Being, and Performance in Sport. 240- 258. 9780367272678

Wood, N., Parker, J., Freeman, P., Black, M. and Moore, L., (2018). The relationship between challenge and threat states and anaerobic power, core affect, perceived exertion, and self-focused attention during a competitive sprint cycling task. In: Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier. 1- 17. 9780444641878

Conferences (2)

Goodman, B., Pettican, A., Speed, E., Gladwell, V. and Freeman, P., (2022). Learning from the Voices for Inclusive Activity (VIA) project: using digital methods to facilitate inclusive and accessible research

Clements, K., Mills, J. and Freeman, P., (2020). Development of the Youth Coaching Effectiveness Scale

Grants and funding

2022

Evaluation: Essex County Council Local Delivery Pilot 1 year extension

Active Essex

2021

Together We Grow: The impact of gardening on physical, psychological and social outcomes

University of Essex (ESRC IAA)

2019

Well-being of staff and compressed working hours

Century office Equipment (Essex) Ltd

Additional work in the action research workload in stage 2 (evaluation) and stage 3 analysis and report writing.

Essex County Council

Evaluation_Local Delivery Pilot for Sport England

Sport England

2018

Improving workplace wellbeing by engaging with nature

University of Essex

Attitudes towards higher education: An evaluation of the Jump Higher project

Make it Happen

Essex Local Delivery Pilot (LDP) - A Tender specification for the second phase of the evaluation of the initial 'Action Research Test and Learn' programme

Essex County Council

Evaluating physical activity behaviour change in Essex: Part of the local delivery pilot

Essex County Council

Evaluating physical activity behaviour change in Essex: Part of the local delivery pilot

Essex County Council

2016

Coach, Athlete, and Relational Influences on Development Athletes' Attitudes, Intentions and Willingness to Dope

International Olympic Committee

Contact

pfreeman@essex.ac.uk
+44 (0) 1206 872179

Location:

ESA.3.10, Colchester Campus