Professor Andrew Canessa

Faculty Dean Postgraduate (Social Sciences) - Professor (R)
Department of Sociology
Professor Andrew Canessa
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 872656

  • Location

    1.601A, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    By appointment



Andrew is a social anthropologist and has worked for many years with Aymara speakers in highland Bolivia and has published widely on issues of indigeneity, race, gender, and sexuality. More recently he was the PI in an ESRC funded project looking at the evolution of a British Gibraltarian identity over the course of the 20th century. Member of the University of Essex Human Rights Centre ESRC research project: Bordering on Britishness: An Oral History of Gibraltarian Identity in the 20th Century Teaching interests: Latin America, race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, indigenous peoples, anthropology.


  • BA

  • PhD (LSE)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Indigenous studies

Open to supervise

Latin America, especially the Andes

Key words: Andes
Open to supervise

Gender and sexualities

Open to supervise

Ethnic and racial identities

Open to supervise

Bolivia, especially indigenous peoples

I am interested in social and political processes in Bolivia, especially as they relate to indigenous peoples.

Key words: Bolivia


I am particularly interested in the development of Gibraltarian identity over the course of the 20th Century and have conducted a major oral history study Bordering on Britishness.

Key words: Gibraltar
Open to supervise

Current research

Andrew is currently finishing an ESRC funded project Bordering on Britishness: An Oral History Study of Gibraltarian Identitywhich explores through almost 400 interviews how Gibraltar evolved from an overwhelmining Spanish speaking in the beginning of the 20th century to one which is increasingly anglophone and where most people passionately reject any association with Spanishness.

Teaching and supervision

Previous supervision

Olivia Jane Stiles Arigho
Olivia Jane Stiles Arigho
Thesis title: “We Are the Seed From Which Bolivia Was Born”: Indigenous Politics and the Environmental Question in Highland Bolivia, 1920-1990.
Degree subject: Sociology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 26/7/2022


Journal articles (30)

Orsini, G., Canessa, A. and Martínez del Campo, LG., (2021). The Strategic Mobilisation of the Border in Gibraltar: The Postcolonial (Re)Production of Privilege and Exclusion. Cromohs - Cyber Review of Modern Historiography. 23, 60-75

Orsini, G., Canessa, A., Gonzaga Martínez del Campo, L. and Ballantine Pereira, J., (2019). Fixed Lines, Permanent Transitions. International Borders, Cross-Border Communities and the Transforming Experience of Otherness. Journal of Borderlands Studies. 34 (3), 361-376

Canessa, A., (2018). Indigenous Conflict in Bolivia Explored Through an African Lens: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Indigeneity. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 60 (2), 308-337

Canessa, A., (2018). Hobbes’ Border Guards or Evo’s Originary Citizens? Indigenous People and the Sovereign State in Bolivia. New Diversities. 19 (2), 69-84

Canessa, A., (2017). Bearing witness: Testimonies, translations, and ontologies in the andes. HAU : Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 7 (1), 545-551

Canessa, A., (2017). Methods really do matter A response to Marisol de la Cadena. HAU : Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 7 (2), 15-17

Ballantine Perera, J. and Canessa, A., (2016). Gibraltarian Oral Histories: Walking the Line Between Critical Distance and Subjectivity. Life Writing. 13 (2), 273-283

Canessa, A., (2014). El pasado en el presente: explorando historias indígenas en Bolivia. Revista Española de Antropología Americana. 44 (1), 255-273

Canessa, A., (2014). Conflict, claim and contradiction in the new ‘indigenous’ state of Bolivia. Critique of Anthropology. 34 (2), 153-173

Canessa, A., (2014). Les paradoxes des politiques multiculturelles en Bolivie : entre inclusion et exclusion. Problèmes d'Amérique latine. 92 (2), 11-11

Canessa, A., (2012). Gender, Indigeneity, and the Performance of Authenticity in Latin American Tourism. Latin American Perspectives. 39 (6), 109-115

Canessa, A., (2012). New Indigenous Citizenship in Bolivia: Challenging the Liberal Model of the State and its Subjects. Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. 7 (2), 201-221

Canessa, ALE., (2012). De la arqueología a la autonomía: El uso de restos precolombinos para forjar una nueva relación con el Estado en Bolivia. Nuevo mundo - Mundos Nuevos. 12 (2)

Canessa, A., (2010). Dreaming of Fathers: Fausto Reinaga and Indigenous Masculinism. Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. 5 (2), 175-187

Canessa, A., (2009). Forgetting the Revolution and Remembering the War: Memory and Violence in Highland Bolivia. History Workshop Journal. 68 (1), 173-198

Canessa, ALE., (2009). El indio desde adentro, el indio desde afuera: ciudadanía, raza y sexo en una comunidad boliviana.. La Manzana de la Discordia. 5 (2), 5-5

Canessa, A., (2008). The Past is Not Another Country: Exploring Indigenous Histories in Bolivia. History and Anthropology. 19 (4), 353-369

Canessa, A., (2008). Sex And The Citizen: Barbies And Beauty Queens In The Age Of Evo Morales. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies. 17 (1), 41-64

Canessa, A., (2007). Who is indigenous? Self-identification, indigeneity, and claims to justice in contemporary Bolivia. Urban Anthropology. 36 (3), 195-237

Canessa, A., (2007). A postcolonial turn: Social and political change in the new indigenous order of Bolivia. Urban Anthropology. 36 (3), 145-159

Canessa, A., (2007). El indio desde adentro, el indio desde afuera: ciudadanía, raza y sexo en una comunidad boliviana. La manzana de la discordia. 4 (2), 7-23

Canessa, A., (2006). Todos somos indigenas: Towards a New Language of National Political Identity. Bulletin of Latin American Research. 25 (2), 241-263

Canessa, ALE., (2006). De latigazos a libros de texto: Observaciones sobre el racismo en Larecaja. Fe y Pueblo. 10 (1), 55-73

Canessa *, A., (2004). Reproducing racism: schooling and race in highland Bolivia. Race Ethnicity and Education. 7 (2), 185-204

Canessa, A., (2000). Fear and loathing on the kharisiri trail: Alterity and identity in the Andes. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 6 (4), 705-720

CANESSA, A., (2000). Contesting Hybridity: Evangelistas and Kataristas in Highland Bolivia. Journal of Latin American Studies. 32 (1), 115-144

Canessa, ALE., (1998). Procreation, the Person and Ethnic Difference in Highland Bolivia. Ethnos. 63 (2), 227-227

Canessa, A., (1998). Evangelical Protestantism in the Northern Highlands of Bolivia. Studies in World Christianity. 4 (Part_1), 21-40

Canessa, A., (1998). Evangelical Protestantism in the Northern Highlands of Bolivia. Studies in World Christianity. 4 (1), 21-40

Howard-Malverde, R. and Canessa, A., (1995). The school in the Quechua and Aymara communities of highland Bolivia. International Journal of Educational Development. 15 (3), 231-243

Books (7)

Canessa, A., (2019). Bordering on Britishness National Identity in Gibraltar from the Spanish Civil War to Brexit. Palgrave Macmillan. 3319993097. 978-3-319-99309-6

Canessa, A., (2018). Barrier and Bridge Spanish and Gibraltarian Perspectives on Their Border. 1845199057. 9781845199050

Canessa, A., (2012). Intimate Indigeneities Race, Sex, and History in the Small Spaces of Andean Life. Duke University Press. 0822352672. 9780822352679

Affairs, IWGFI. and IWGIA, (2012). Género, complementariedades y exclusiones en Mesoamérica y los Andes. 8792786111. 9788792786111

Hernández, RA. and Canessa, A., (2012). Género, complementariedades y exclusiones en Mesoamérica y los Andes.. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA); Abya Yala Press; The British Academy. 9788792786111

Canessa, A., (2011). Natives making nation: Gender, indigeneity, and the state in the Andes. 9780816530137

Canessa, A., (2006). Minas, Mote y Muņecas Identidades e Indigeneidades en Larecaja

Book chapters (19)

Orsini, G., Canessa, A. and Martinez, L., (2018). Small Territories/Big Borders: Gibraltar, Lampedusa, and Melilla. In: Barrier and Bridge: Gibraltarian and Spanish Perspectives on their Border. Editors: Canessa, A., . Sussex Academic Press. 22- 22. 978-1-84519-905-0

Canessa, A., Orsini, G. and Martínez, L., (2018). An Example to the World!:’ Multiculturalism in the Creation of a Gibraltarian Identity. In: Barrier and Bridge: Gibraltarian and Spanish Perspectives on their Border. Editors: Canessa, A., . Sussex Academic Press. 102- 125. 978-1-84519-905-0

Canessa, A., Orsini, G. and Martínez, L., (2018). Gibraltar as a Gated Community: A Critical Look at Gibraltarian Nationalism. In: Barrier and Bridge: Gibraltarian and Spanish Perspectives on their Border. Editors: Canessa, A., . Sussex Academic Press. 150- 174. 978-1-84519-905-0

Canessa, ALE., (2017). Painful Proximity: Two Women's Accounts of the Gibraltar/Spanish Border. In: Encyclopedia of Migrants. L'age de la tortue

Canessa, A., (2017). Competing Indigeneities: Being a (Hyper)real Ecowarrior in Twenty-first Century Bolivia. In: Global Entangled Inequalities: Conceptual Debates and Evidence from Latin America. Editors: Jelin, E., Motta, RC. and Costa, S., . Routledsge. 128- 143. 9781138740600

Canessa, ALE., (2016). The Paradoxes of Multiculturalism in Bolivia. In: The Crisis of Multiculturalism in Latin America. Editors: Lehmann, D., . Springer. 1137509589. 9781137509581

Canessa, ALE., (2013). Geschlecht und Sexualität in Lateinamerika in (post-) postkolonialer Perspektive. In: Frauen (und) Macht in Lateinamerika. Editors: Tuider, E. and Burchardt, H., . Nomos

Canessa, ALE., (2012). Soñando con padres: Fausto Reinaga y el masculinismo indígena. In: Hacia un futuro Indígena en Mesoamérica y los Andes: Género, Complementariedades y Exclusiones. Editors: Canessa, A. and Hernandez Castillo, A., . IWGIA/Abya Yala. 99- 117. 978-87-92786-11-1

Canessa, ALE. and Hernandez Castillo, R., (2012). Introducción: Identidades Indígenas y Relaciones de Género en Mesoamérica y la Región Andina. In: Hacia un futuro Indígena en Mesoamérica y los Andes: Género, Complementariedades y Exclusiones.. Editors: Canessa, A. and Hernandez Castillo, R., . IWGIA/Abya Yala

Canessa, ALE., (2012). Sitios Antiguos y Nuevas Ciudadanías: El uso de la arqueología para crear autonomía autóctona en Bolivia. In: Autoctonía, poder local y espacio global frente a la noción de ciudadanía. Editors: Orobitg, G. and Pitarch, P., . Universitat de Barcelona

Canessa, A., (2011). The Indian within, the Indian without: Citizenship, race, and sex in a Bolivian Hamlet. In: Natives Making Nation: Gender, Indigeneity, and the State in the Andes. 130- 155. 9780816530137

Canessa, A., (2011). Introduction: Making the nation on the margins. 3- 31. 9780816530137

Canessa, ALE., (2008). Celebrando lo indígena en Bolivia: Unas reflexiones sobre el año nuevo Aymara. In: Repensando las identidades y políticas indígenas en América Latina. Editors: Martinez Novo, C., . Flacso

Canessa, ALE., (2008). El sexo y el ciudadano: Barbies y reinas de belleza en la era de Evo Morales.. In: Raza, etnicidad y sexualidades: ciudadanía y multiculturalismo en América Latina. Editors: Wade, P., Urrea, F. and Viveros, M., . CES

Canessa, ALE., (2006). ‘Kharisiri: Maldad y alteridad en los Andes meridionales.’. In: Conceptos del Mal en Latinoamerica.. Editors: Gareis, I., . BAS (Bonner Amerikanistische Studien / Estudios Americanistas de Bonn),. 167- 201

Canessa, ALE., (2003). Evangelistas y Kataristas en Bolivia. In: Ensayos sobre la sociología de religión andina

Canessa, ALE., (2002). Postmodernismo y evangelismo en Bolivia. In: Religion y postmodernidad: Las recientes alteraciones de campo religioso. Abya Yala. 47- 66

Canessa, ALE., (1999). Making Persons, Marking Difference: Procreation in Highland Bolivia. In: Conceiving Persons: Ethnographies of Procreations, Substance, and Personhood. Editors: Loizos, P. and Heady, P., . Athlone Press. 69- 87. 9781845206901

Canessa, ALE., (1997). Chachawarmi: negociando (des)igualdades de género en una aldea aymara boliviana. In: In Nuevas Direcciones en los Estudios Andinos. Editors: Arnold, D., . ILCA/CIPCA

Other (1)

(2008).From the Editor of the Journal ofLatin American and Caribbean Anthropology. American Anthropologist. 110(4),Wiley

Grants and funding


Conquering Self-Representation: A Collaborative Approach to the Aesthetical-Political Dimension of Amazonian Contemporary Art

European Commission


Bordering on Britishness

Economic & Social Research Council

+44 (0) 1206 872656


1.601A, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

By appointment