People

Professor Graham Underwood

Executive Dean (Science & Health) - Professor (R)
School of Biological Sciences
Professor Graham Underwood
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873337

  • Location

    6.313, Colchester Campus

Profile

Biography

I am a marine and freshwater biologist, particularly interested in the the interactions between microbes (algae and bacteria), nutrient and element cycling, and how these 'bottom up' process feed through into ecosystem functioning. I have broader interests in the biology of invertebrates, habitat use and fragmentation on the coast, coastal geomorphology and sea level rise. My research is based in the U.K., but I have also carried out research in the Baltic, Mediterranean and South African environments, tropical systems in the Indo-pacific and the Bahamas, and more recently studying Antarctic and Arctic sea ice communities. Biofilms Consist of many algal species in a structured mucilage matrix. They play fundamental roles in fixing carbon, utilising nutrients, interacting with bacterial processes, stabilising sediments and providing food for invertebrates and fish. An underpinning aspect of my groups research concerns the integration of activities of individual cells and species with the overall properties of biofilms. Just how important is species composition in determining biofilm ecology? Projects andcurrent funded programmes Five major fundedprojects are currently underway: NERC, The key role of DOM in regulating microbial diversity, community structure and organic carbon cycling in arctic lakes (July 2012- March 2016, £562,400 (£494,161 plus £64k NERC facilities costs, PI coIs McGenity, Dumbrell; Anderson, Loughborough (+ £186,406)). NERC, A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins - CBESS. (Feb 2012 - Mar 2016, £392,843,£312,210, plus £86K NERC facilities costs, PI, coIs McGenity, Dumbrell).Jan 2012, £714,318). Part of the NERCBiodiversity and Ecosystem Servicesthematic programme;http://www.nerc-bess.net/ NERC, The role of lateral exchange in modulating the seaward flux of CNP (Aug 2012 - July 2015. CoI, with Whitby, Nedwell, Dong). Part of the NERC Macronutrient cycles thematic programmehttp://macronutrient-cycles.ouce.ox.ac.uk/ Environment Agency. Water Framework Directive status in Transitional and Coastal waters: assessment and new modes of monitoring. (PI, Aug. 2011 - Feb 2013. £40,000.) King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia. Envrionmental metagenomics and biotechnology of Rhazya stricta and its associated microbiota. (joint PIs, Mullineaux, McGenity, May 2011 - Nov 2013. £438,702,) Recent projects funded by UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) have investigated photosynthesis, exopolymer production (extracellular polymeric substances, polysaccharides, carbohydrates) in estuarine benthic diatom biofilms and in sea ice environments in the Arctic and Antarctic. My group also has interests intherhythms in photosynthesis,spatial and temporal heterogeneity and the contributions of different algal taxa to biofilm productivity. Diatoms have complex behavioural and physiological response enabling them to cope with high light stress, UVB and photo-oxidative damage:one reason for their abundance and high levels of primary production in aquatic systems. Production of Exopolymers by diatoms in benthic and sea ice environments. Exopolymers (EPS) are important in aquatic systems as a carbon source and because they contribute towards biostabilisation of sediments. Our research has examined the relationship between diatom biomass, primary production and exopolymer production in benthic diatoms and patterns of expolymer production and utilisation of internal storage products under different conditions, in mudflats,on tropical beaches, in Bahamian stromatolites and in sea ice from the Antarctic and Arctic Oceans. Though intertidal sediment and sea ice, at first glance, seem quite different systems, the challenges they pose to diatoms (steep light gradients, temperature and salinity stress, spatial co-location and metabolic coupling with bacteria) are rather similar. Our recent work has been the first to characterise the complex EPS produced by diatoms under these different stress conditions, and demonstrate the role they play in enabling cell survival.,we investigated patterns of EPS production, sugar composition and structure in more detail, and this work has led to furtherfunding by NERCon the dynamics of microbial cycling of carbohydrates in the surface layers of intertidal mudflats, concentrating on the coupling between inputs of extracellular carbohydrates, the rates and nature of degradation of this organic material by microbial metabolic activity, and characterisation of the enzymes and microbial taxa involved.These projects haveenabled us to identify groups of bacteria (by phospholipid fatty acid profiles and stable isoptope signatures) that appear to be particularly able to degrade the different types of complex polysaccharides and other EPS produced by diatoms. Recent studies, using stable isotope probing of RNA, has demonstrated rapid uptake of diatom-derived EPS into specific groups of bacteria. It is likely that consortia of bacteria are involved in EPS degradation, and this is an important carbon cycling pathway in benthic systems. Other Activities: Member Science and Innovation Strategy Board, Natural Environment Research Council Peer Review College Pool of Chairs member, Natural Environmental Research Council Member of the DEFRA Marine Protected Area Scientific Advisory Panel advising on Marine Conservation Zones under the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 Chairman, Colne Estuary Advisory Group EUREKA - environmental consultancy and researchprovided by the Department. Panel member, BBC Radio 4's Environment Programme Lecturing in BSc in Marine Biology, BSc in Ecology Biology MSc in Marine Biology Research Grant history 35. July 2012, £562,400 (£494,161 plus £64k NERC facilities costs), NERC, The key role of DOM in regulating microbial diversity, community structure and organic carbon cycling in arctic lakes (PI coIs McGenity, Dumbrell; Anderson, Loughborough (+ £186,406)). 34. Feb 2012, £392,843 (£312,210, plus £86K NERC facilities costs), NERC, A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins. (PI, coIs McGenity, Dumbrell). 33. Jan 2012, £714,318, NERC, The role of lateral exchange in modulating the seaward flux of CNP (CoI, Whitby, Nedwell) 32. Aug. 2011. £40,000. Environment Agency. WFD status in TraC waters: assessment and new modes of monitoring. (PI) 31. May 2011. £438,702, King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia. Envrionmental metagenomics and biotechnology of Rhazya stricta and its associated microbiota. (joint PIs, Mullineaux, McGenity) 30. July 2010 £19,000, Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners. Support for Colne Estuary Partnership (PI) 29. Dec 2009. £1,580, Colchester Borough Council. Review of the effects of chlorination on sub-littoral benthic communities. (PI) 28. April 2009 £8,000, Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners. Support for Colne Estuary Partnership (£4K each from TDC and Anglian water). (PI) 27. April 2008. £3,226, Colchester Oyster Fisheries, Plankton feeding by adult lobsters. (PI) 26. March 2008. £10,000, Environment Agency. Faecal pollution indicators within Brightlingsea Creek. (PI) 25. Dec 2007. £2,435, Brightlingsea Harbour commissioners Colne Estuary Partnership conference. (PI) 24. June 2007 £335,272 NERC. Production, characterisation and novel roles of sea ice diatom exopolymers. (PI, joint with Thomas, Bangor) 23. June 2007. The Royal Society, £620, Travel Grant. 22. Dec 2006. £1500 Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners. Ecology of native Oysters in the River Colne estuary (PI) 21. June 2006. £10,770, Colchester Oyster Fisheries, Restoration of native Oysters in the river Colne estuary. (PI) 20. Feb 2006 £64,458, NERC. Is increased chemical complexity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) related to increasing salinity in polar sea ice? (PI, with CoI D. Thomas, Bangor). 19. Dec 2005 £267,152 NERC. Degradation of dissolved complex polysaccharides in estuarine littoral zones. (PI, with CoI McGenity). 18. July 2005 £187,240 NERC. roles of DMSP and GBT in protection from photoinhibition/photooxidative stress and consequences for DMS and NH3 production. (SOLAS thematic programme, Co-I with R. Geider, N.R. Baker) 17. June 2005. The Royal Society. £616. Travel Grant. 16. Dec 2004 £2,438, Environment Agency. Analysis of estuarine phytoplankton data from the Thames Estuary. (PI) 15. July 2004 £54,570, Sea Fish Industry Authority, Strategies to determine and alleviate the impact of faecal contamination on shellfish aquaculture. ((PI) with Drs Ball and Smith) 14. July 2004 £193,583 NERC. Development of an instrument for sequential imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence and Light-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) at the single cell level. (Co-I, with Oxborough, Geider) 13. Dec 2003, £193,608 NERC. Strategies for tolerance to high light stress in diatoms (PI, with NR Baker). 12. Sept 2003, £29,824 NERC. Continuous culture systems for studying microbial community dynamics in marine environments. (co PI with Geider et al.). 11. Dec 2001. £199,404 NERC. Carbohydrate degradation and bacterial-algal coupling in intertidal sediments (PI, with Osborn and Ball). 10. June 2001 $370,000, Exopolymer production by diatoms US National Science Foundation. £51,034, Essex component of award to Gretz (Michigan Tech.) and Underwood (Essex). 9. June 2001 £25,500 Environment Agency. Ph.D. studentship, developing and estuarine trophic diatom index. (PI) 8. Mar 1998 £142,879 NERC Determination of individual cell contributions to in situ microphytobenthic photosynthesis. (PI, with NR Baker, DM Paterson). 7. Jun. 1997 £164,646 Dept. of Environment, Environmental limitation of phytoplankton in estuaries (CoI with DB Nedwell). 6. Aug. 1996, £80,000 NERC Ecosystem Dynamics. Sublethal effects of herbicides on saltmarshes £80,000 awarded in first phase, (with C.F. Mason et al.). 5. Oct. 1995, £64,356, National Rivers Authority, Investigation of sediment, phytobenthic and water quality interactions in the River Deben estuary, Suffolk. (CoI with DB Nedwell). 4. June 1995, ECU 278,000. EU. MAST III proposal. Nitrogen cycling in estuaries. 1.4 mECU awarded, Essex component ? £187,000 Jan. 1996 (PI with DB Nedwell). 3. Jun. 1994, £142,000, Dept. of Environment, Influence of benthic algal biofilms on nutrient fluxes across the sediment-water interface (PI with DB Nedwell). 2. Nov. 1993, £45,000, Anglian Water Services Ltd, Phosphorous cycling and algal dynamics in Alton reservoir (fully funded Ph.D., PI, with P Daldorph, Anglian Water). 1. Nov. 1992, £156,126, NERC, Investigation of primary productivity by microphytobenthos in intertidal mudflats. (PI (joint with St. Andrews) Essex component, £52,239).

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Estuarine and coastal ecology, especially

The ecology of microphytobenthos (benthic microalgae) in coastal ecosystems,

The role of benthic primary producers in coastal nutrient cycles

Estuarine ecology and functioning (fish, shellfish and invertebrates)

Current research

Salt marsh and estuarine ecology,looking at marsh fragmentation, food resources and habitatuseby juvenile fish.

The importance of water quality and environmental factors in the ecology of oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas), and management measures to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal habitats.

Ecology of microalgal biofilms in tropical (corals sands, seagrass beds, beaches) habitats

Sediment stabilisation by microalgal biofilms

Managed realignment, saltmarsh restoration and rising sea levels

Conferences and presentations

August 2012. Plenary Speaker. International Diatom Symposium, Ghent, Belgium.

2012

Jun 2011 Plenary speaker. International Symposium on the trophic significant of MPB biofilms. La Rochelle, France.

2011

Jan 2011 British Phycologcial Society, invited lecture. Special session Algae in estuaries

2011

Sept 2010 Plenary Lecturer: Coastal Diatoms indicators or just opportunists. All at Sea? - synergies between past and present coastal processes & ecology, 9-10th Sept 2010, University of Loughborough. U.K.

2010

Sept 2009. Society of General Microbiology, Herriot Watt, Scotland. Invited Lecture, Polar Microbiology HW14. Exopolymer (EPS) production by diatoms in sea ice.

2009

July 2007. European Phycological Congress, Oviedo, Spain. Invited lecture: Response of diatoms to light and salinity stress.

2007

April 2006 North East Algal Symposium, New York, USA Plenary speaker,. Biofilms.

2006

June 2005 American Society for Limnology and Oceanography meeting, Santiago, Spain, June 19-24. Invited keynote speaker, special session Biogeochemistry of tidal flats.June 2005,

2005

April 2005 European Geophysical Union Congress, Vienna, 25-29th April 2005. Invited keynote speaker in a special Biofilms session, co-organised by the biogeochemistry section of the EGU and the International Society for Microbial Ecology. Cell-specific activity, photosynthesis and exopolymer dynamics in transient marine diatom biofilms.

2005

Aug 2003, Invited speaker, Microphytobenthos functioning colloquium, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam.

2003

Teaching and supervision

Previous supervision

Sarah Allison
Sarah Allison
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 4/2/2019
David Robert Clark
David Robert Clark
Thesis title: The Macroecology of Microorganisms: From Pattern to Process
Degree subject: Microbiology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 2/1/2018
Nurul Shahida Redzuan
Nurul Shahida Redzuan
Thesis title: Microphytobenthos (Mpb) Biomass Variability and Sediment-Water Column Exchanges on an Intertidal Flat: Influence of Weather-Related Abiotic Factors Across Neap-Spring-Neap Tidal Cycles
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 27/6/2017
Garwai Leung
Garwai Leung
Thesis title: Characterising Methanogen and Methanotroph Diversity, Abundance and Activity Within the Hampshire-Avon Catchment
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 1/6/2017
Leslie James Cousins
Leslie James Cousins
Thesis title: Biodiversity Assessment: Moving Towards an Evidence-Based Index for Biodiversity Offsetting
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 16/5/2016
Deborah Jane Steele
Deborah Jane Steele
Thesis title: The Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances as Protectants of Benthic Diatoms in Hypersaline Conditions
Degree subject: Environmental Sciences
Degree type: Master of Science (by Dissertation)
Awarded date: 24/1/2011

Publications

Journal articles (99)

Alzarhani, AK., Clark, DR., Underwood, GJC., Ford, H., Cotton, TEA. and Dumbrell, A., (2019). Are Drivers of Root-Associated Fungal Community Structure Context Specific?. ISME Journal. 13 (5), 1330-1344

Underwood, G., Michel, C., Meisterhans, G., Niemi, A., Belzile, C., Witt, M., Dumbrell, AJ. and Koch, BP., (2019). Organic matter from Artic sea ice loss alters bacterial community structure and function. Nature Climate Change. 9 (2), 170-176

Aslam, SN., Strauss, J., Thomas, DN., Mock, T. and Underwood, GJC., (2018). Identifying metabolic pathways for production of extracellular polymeric substances by the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus inhabiting sea ice. The ISME Journal. 12 (5), 1237-1251

Bohórquez, J., McGenity, TJ., Papaspyrou, S., García-Robledo, E., Corzo, A. and Underwood, GJC., (2017). Different Types of Diatom-Derived Extracellular Polymeric Substances Drive Changes in Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities from Intertidal Sediments. Frontiers in Microbiology. 8 (245), 245-

Clark, DR., Mathieu, M., Mourot, L., Underwood, GJC., Dufossé, L., Dumbrell, AJ. and McGenity, TJ., (2017). Biogeography at the limits of life: Do extremophilic microbial communities show biogeographical regionalization?. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 26 (12), 1435-1446

Cousins, LJ., Cousins, MS., Gardiner, T. and Underwood, GJC., (2017). Factors influencing the initial establishment of salt marsh vegetation on engineered sea wall terraces in south east England. Ocean and Coastal Management. 143, 96-104

Osburn, CL., Anderson, NJ., Stedmon, CA., Giles, ME., Whiteford, EJ., McGenity, TJ., Dumbrell, AJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2017). Shifts in the Source and Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwest Greenland Lakes Along a Regional Hydro-climatic Gradient. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 122 (12), 3431-3445

Aslam, SN., Dumbrell, AJ., Sabir, JS., Mutwakil, MHZ., Baeshen, MMN., Abo-Aba, SEM., Clark, DR., Yates, SA., Baeshen, NA., Underwood, GJC. and McGenity, TJ., (2016). Soil compartment is a major determinant of the impact of simulated rainfall on desert microbiota. Environmental Microbiology. 18 (12), 5048-5062

Aslam, SN., Michel, C., Niemi, A. and Underwood, GJC., (2016). Patterns and drivers of carbohydrate budgets in ice algal assemblages from first year Arctic sea ice. Limnology and Oceanography. 61 (3), 919-937

Steele, DJ., Franklin, DJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2014). Protection of cells from salinity stress by extracellular polymeric substances in diatom biofilms. Biofouling. 30 (8), 987-998

Van Colen, C., Underwood, GJC., Serôdio, J. and Paterson, DM., (2014). Ecology of intertidal microbial biofilms: Mechanisms, patterns and future research needs. Journal of Sea Research. 92, 2-5

McMellor, S. and Underwood, GJC., (2014). Water policy effectiveness: 30Years of change in the hypernutrified Colne estuary, England. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 81 (1), 200-209

Poulin, M., Underwood, GJC. and Michel, C., (2014). Sub-ice colonialMelosira arcticain Arctic first-year ice. Diatom Research. 29 (2), 213-221

Cousins, LJ., McMellor, S., Underwood, GJC. and Hepburn, LJ., (2014). Offsetting: moving towards an evidence-based metric for biodiversity assessment. In Practice. 83, 24-27

Underwood, GJC., Aslam, SN., Michel, C., Niemi, A., Norman, L., Meiners, KM., Laybourn-Parry, J., Paterson, H. and Thomas, DN., (2013). Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (39), 15734-15739

Müller, S., Vähätalo, AV., Stedmon, CA., Granskog, MA., Norman, L., Aslam, SN., Underwood, GJC., Dieckmann, GS. and Thomas, DN., (2013). Selective incorporation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during sea ice formation. Marine Chemistry. 155, 148-157

Taylor, JD., McKew, BA., Kuhl, A., McGenity, TJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2013). Microphytobenthic extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in intertidal sediments fuel both generalist and specialist EPS-degrading bacteria. Limnology and Oceanography. 58 (4), 1463-1480

McKew, BA., Dumbrell, AJ., Taylor, JD., McGenity, TJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2013). Differences between aerobic and anaerobic degradation of microphytobenthic biofilm-derived organic matter within intertidal sediments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 84 (3), 495-509

Chronopoulou, P-M., Fahy, A., Coulon, F., Païssé, S., Goñi-Urriza, M., Peperzak, L., Acuña Alvarez, L., McKew, BA., Lawson, T., Timmis, KN., Duran, R., Underwood, GJC. and McGenity, TJ., (2013). Impact of a simulated oil spill on benthic phototrophs and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in mudflat mesocosms. Environmental Microbiology. 15 (1), 242-252

Aslam, SN., Cresswell-Maynard, T., Thomas, DN. and Underwood, GJC., (2012). Production and Characterization of the Intra- and Extracellular Carbohydrates and Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Three Sea-Ice Diatom Species, and Evidence for a Cryoprotective Role for EPS. Journal of Phycology. 48 (6), 1494-1509

Green, BC., Smith, DJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2012). Habitat connectivity and spatial complexity differentially affect mangrove and salt marsh fish assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 466, 177-192

McLachlan, DH., Underwood, GJC., Taylor, AR. and Brownlee, C., (2012). CALCIUM RELEASE FROM INTRACELLULAR STORES IS NECESSARY FOR THE PHOTOPHOBIC RESPONSE IN THE BENTHIC DIATOM NAVICULA PERMINUTA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)1. Journal of Phycology. 48 (3), 675-681

Coulon, F., Chronopoulou, P-M., Fahy, A., Païssé, S., Goñi-Urriza, M., Peperzak, L., Acuña Alvarez, L., McKew, BA., Brussaard, CPD., Underwood, GJC., Timmis, KN., Duran, R. and McGenity, TJ., (2012). Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78 (10), 3638-3648

Aslam, SN., Underwood, GJC., Kaartokallio, H., Norman, L., Autio, R., Fischer, M., Kuosa, H., Dieckmann, GS. and Thomas, DN., (2012). Dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (dEPS) dynamics and bacterial growth during sea ice formation in an ice tank study. Polar Biology. 35 (5), 661-676

Suphan, S., Peerapornpisal, Y. and Underwood, GJC., (2012). Benthic diatoms of Mekong River and its tributaries in northern and north-eastern Thailand and their application to water quality monitoring. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology. 6 (1), 28-46

Green, BC., Smith, DJ., Grey, J. and Underwood, GJC., (2012). High site fidelity and low site connectivity in temperate salt marsh fish populations: a stable isotope approach. Oecologia. 168 (1), 245-255

McKew, BA., Taylor, JD., McGenity, TJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2011). Resistance and resilience of benthic biofilm communities from a temperate saltmarsh to desiccation and rewetting. The ISME Journal. 5 (1), 30-41

Underwood, GJC., (2010). Microphytobenthos and phytoplankton in the Severn estuary, UK: Present situation and possible consequences of a tidal energy barrage. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 61 (1-3), 83-91

Hinojosa-Garro, D., Mason, CF. and Underwood, GJC., (2010). Influence of macrophyte spatial architecture on periphyton and macroinvertebrate community structure in shallow water bodies under contrasting land management. Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie. 177 (1), 19-37

Waring, J., Klenell, M., Bechtold, U., Underwood, GJC. and Baker, NR., (2010). LIGHT-INDUCED RESPONSES OF OXYGEN PHOTOREDUCTION, REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES PRODUCTION AND SCAVENGING IN TWO DIATOM SPECIES1. Journal of Phycology. 46 (6), 1206-1217

Underwood, GJC., Fietz, S., Papadimitriou, S., Thomas, DN. and Dieckmann, GS., (2010). Distribution and composition of dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in Antarctic sea ice. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 404, 1-19

Chin, JP., Megaw, J., Magill, CL., Nowotarski, K., Williams, JP., Bhaganna, P., Linton, M., Patterson, MF., Underwood, GJC., Mswaka, AY. and Hallsworth, JE., (2010). Solutes determine the temperature windows for microbial survival and growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (17), 7835-7840

Underwood, GJC., (2010). Microphytobenthos and phytoplankton in the Severn estuary, UK: Present situation and possible consequences of a tidal energy barrage. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 61 (1-3, S), 83-91

Green, BC., Smith, DJ., Earley, SE., Hepburn, LJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2009). Seasonal changes in community composition and trophic structure of fish populations of five salt marshes along the Essex coastline, United Kingdom. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 85 (2), 247-256

McLachlan, DH., Brownlee, C., Taylor, AR., Geider, RJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2009). LIGHT-INDUCED MOTILE RESPONSES OF THE ESTUARINE BENTHIC DIATOMSNAVICULA PERMINUTAANDCYLINDROTHECA CLOSTERIUM(BACILLARIOPHYCEAE). Journal of Phycology. 45 (3), 592-599

Bellinger, BJ., Underwood, GJC., Ziegler, SE. and Gretz, MR., (2009). Significance of diatom-derived polymers in carbon flow dynamics within estuarine biofilms determined through isotopic enrichment. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 55 (2), 169-187

Hofmann, T., Hanlon, ARM., Taylor, JD., Ball, AS., Osborn, AM. and Underwood, GJC., (2009). Dynamics and compositional changes in extracellular carbohydrates in estuarine sediments during degradation. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 379, 45-58

Apoya-Horton, MD., Underwood, GJC. and Gretz, MR., (2009). Probing The Relationship Between Movement Modalities In Cylindrotheca Closterium (Bacillariophyceae): Effects Of Osmotic Shock And Cytoskeletal And Metabolic Inhibitors On Movement. Journal of Phycology. 45, creators-Underwood=3AGraham_J_C=3A=3A

Hinojosa-Garro, D., Mason, CF. and Underwood, GJC., (2008). Macrophyte assemblages in ditches of coastal marshes in relation to land-use, salinity and water quality. Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie. 172 (4), 325-337

WARING, JEN., BAKER, NEILR. and UNDERWOOD, GRAHAMJC., (2007). Responses of estuarine intertidal microphytobenthic algal assemblages to enhanced ultraviolet B radiation. Global Change Biology. 13 (7), 1398-1413

Thornton, DCO., Dong, LF., Underwood, GJC. and Nedwell, DB., (2007). Sediment–water inorganic nutrient exchange and nitrogen budgets in the Colne Estuary, UK. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 337, 63-77

Haynes, K., Hofmann, TA., Smith, CJ., Ball, AS., Underwood, GJC. and Osborn, AM., (2007). Diatom-Derived Carbohydrates as Factors Affecting Bacterial Community Composition in Estuarine Sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (19), 6112-6124

Nizzoli, D., Bartoli, M., Cooper, M., Welsh, DT., Underwood, GJC. and Viaroli, P., (2007). Implications for oxygen, nutrient fluxes and denitrification rates during the early stage of sediment colonisation by the polychaete Nereis spp. in four estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 75 (1-2), 125-134

Schuwerack, P-MM., Jones, PW., Underwood, GJC. and Barnes, RSK., (2006). Gender and Species Differences in Sentinel Crabs (Macrophthalmus) Feeding on an Indonesian Mudflat. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 26 (2), 119-123

WARING, JEN., UNDERWOOD, GRAHAMJC. and BAKER, NEILR., (2006). Impact of elevated UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport, primary productivity and carbon allocation in estuarine epipelic diatoms. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (4), 521-534

Abdullahi, AS., Underwood, GJC. and Gretz, MR., (2006). EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ASSEMBLY IN DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE). V. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON POLYSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS IN THE MODEL DIATOM, PHAEODACTYLUM TRICORNUTUM1. Journal of Phycology. 42 (2), 363-378

Apoya-Horton, MD., Yin, L., Underwood, GJC. and Gretz, MR., (2006). MOVEMENT MODALITIES AND RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OF THE MUDFLAT DIATOM CYLINDROTHECA CLOSTERIUM (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)1. Journal of Phycology. 42 (2), 379-390

Hanlon, ARM., Bellinger, B., Haynes, K., Xiao, G., Hofmann, TA., Gretz, MR., Ball, AS., Osborn, AM. and Underwood, GJC., (2006). Dynamics of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and loss in an estuarine, diatom-dominated, microalgal biofilm over a tidal emersion-immersion period. Limnology and Oceanography. 51 (1 I), 79-93

Hanlon, ARM., Bellinger, B., Haynes, K., Xiao, G., Hofmann, TA., Gretz, MR., Ball, AS., Osborn, AM. and Underwood, GJC., (2006). Dynamics of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and loss in an estuarine, diatom-dominated, microalgal biofilm over a tidal emersio-immersion period. Limnology and Oceanography. 51 (1), 79-93

Underwood, GJC., Perkins, RG., Consalvey, MC., Hanlon, ARM., Oxborough, K., Baker, NR. and Paterson, DM., (2005). Patterns in microphytobenthic primary productivity: Species-specific variation in migratory rhythms and photosynthetic efficiency in mixed-species biofilms. Limnology and Oceanography. 50 (3), 755-767

Bellinger, BJ., Abdullahi, AS., Gretz, MR. and Underwood, GJC., (2005). Biofilm polymers: relationship between carbohydrate biopolymers from estuarine mudflats and unialgal cultures of benthic diatoms. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 38 (2), 169-180

Consalvey, M., Perkins, RG., Paterson, DM. and Underwood, GJC., (2005). PAM FLUORESCENCE: A BEGINNERS GUIDE FOR BENTHIC DIATOMISTS. Diatom Research. 20 (1), 1-22

Consalvey, M., Paterson, DM. and Underwood, GJC., (2004). THE UPS AND DOWNS OF LIFE IN A BENTHIC BIOFILM: MIGRATION OF BENTHIC DIATOMS. Diatom Research. 19 (2), 181-202

Consalvey, M., Jesus, B., Perkins, RG., Brotas, V., Underwood, GJC. and Paterson, DM., (2004). Monitoring Migration and Measuring Biomass in Benthic Biofilms: The Effects of Dark/far-red Adaptation and Vertical Migration on Fluorescence Measurements. Photosynthesis Research. 81 (1), 91-101

Underwood, GJC., Boulcott, M., Raines, CA. and Waldron, K., (2004). ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON EXOPOLYMER PRODUCTION BY MARINE BENTHIC DIATOMS: DYNAMICS, CHANGES IN COMPOSITION, AND PATHWAYS OF PRODUCTION1. Journal of Phycology. 40 (2), 293-304

Mason, CF., Underwood, GJC., Baker, NR., Davey, PA., Davidson, I., Hanlon, A., Long, SP., Oxborough, K., Paterson, DM. and Watson, A., (2003). The role of herbicides in the erosion of salt marshes in eastern England. Environmental Pollution. 122 (1), 41-49

Underwood, GJC. and Paterson, DM., (2003). The importance of extracellular carbohydrate productionby marine epipelic diatoms. Advances in Botanical Research. 40, 183-240

Perkins, RG., Oxborough, K., Hanlon, ARM., Underwood, GJC. and Baker, NR., (2002). Can chlorophyll fluorescence be used to estimate the rate of photosynthetic electron transport within microphytobenthic biofilms?. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 228, 47-56

Perkins, RG. and Underwood, GJC., (2002). Partial recovery of a eutrophic reservoir through managed phosphorus limitation and unmanaged macrophyte growth. Hydrobiologia. 481 (1/3), 75-87

UNDERWOOD, GRAHAMJC., (2002). Adaptations of tropical marine microphytobenthic assemblages along a gradient of light and nutrient availability in Suva Lagoon, Fiji. European Journal of Phycology. 37 (3), 449-462

Dong, LF., Nedwell, DB., Underwood, GJC., Thornton, DCO. and Rusmana, I., (2002). Nitrous Oxide Formation in the Colne Estuary, England: the Central Role of Nitrite. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (3), 1240-1249

Kocum, E., Nedwell, DB. and Underwood, GJC., (2002). Regulation of phytoplankton primary production along a hypernutrified estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 231, 13-22

Nedwell, DB., Sage, AS. and Underwood, GJC., (2002). Rapid assessment of macro algal cover on intertidal sediments in a nutrified estuary. Science of The Total Environment. 285 (1-3), 97-105

Kocum, E., Underwood, GJC. and Nedwell, DB., (2002). Simultaneous measurement of phytoplanktonic primary production, nutrient and light availability along a turbid, eutrophic UK east coast estuary (the Colne Estuary). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 231, 1-12

Nedwell, DB., Dong, LF., Sage, A. and Underwood, GJC., (2002). Variations of the Nutrients Loads to the Mainland U.K. Estuaries: Correlation with Catchment Areas, Urbanization and Coastal Eutrophication. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 54 (6), 951-970

Thornton, DCO., Dong, LF., Underwood, GJC. and Nedwell, DB., (2002). Factors affecting microphytobenthic biomass, species composition and production in the Colne Estuary (UK). Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 27 (3), 285-300

Perkins, RG. and Underwood, GJC., (2001). The potential for phosphorus release across the sediment–water interface in an eutrophic reservoir dosed with ferric sulphate. Water Research. 35 (6), 1399-1406

Perkins, RG., Underwood, GJC., Brotas, V., Snow, GC., Jesus, B. and Ribeiro, L., (2001). Responses of microphytobenthos to light: primary production and carbohydrate allocation over an emersion period. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 223, 101-112

Underwood, G. and Provot, L., (2000). Determining the environmental preferences of four estuarine epipelic diatom taxa: growth across a range of salinity, nitrate and ammonium conditions. European Journal of Phycology. 35 (2), 173-182

Smith, DJ. and Underwood, GJC., (2000). The production of extracellular carbohydrates by estuarine benthic diatoms: the effects of growth phase and light and dark treatment. Journal of Phycology. 36 (2), 321-333

Wulff, A., Wängberg, S-ÅK., Sundbäck, K., Nilsson, C. and Underwood, GJC., (2000). Effects of UVB radiation on a marine microphytobenthic community growing on a sand-substratum under different nutrient conditions. Limnology and Oceanography. 45 (5), 1144-1152

Perkins, R., (2000). Gradients of chlorophyll a and water chemistry along an eutrophic reservoir with determination of the limiting nutrient by in situ nutrient addition. Water Research. 34 (3), 713-724

Oxborough, K., Hanlon, ARM., Underwood, GJC. and Baker, NR., (2000). In vivo estimation of the photosystem II photochemical efficiency of individual microphytobenthic cells using high-resolution imaging of chlorophyllafluorescence. Limnology and Oceanography. 45 (6), 1420-1425

Dong, LF., Thornton, DCO., Nedwell, DB. and Underwood, GJC., (2000). Denitrification in sediments of the River Colne estuary, England. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 203, 109-122

(2000). Gradients of chlorophyll a and water chemistry along an eutrophic reservoir with determination of the limiting nutrient by in situ nutrient addition. R.G. Perkins and G.J.C. Underwood. [Water Research 1999; 34(3), 713–724]. Water Research. 34 (14), 3690-3690

Perkins, RG. and Underwood, GJC., (2000). Gradients of chlorophyll a and water chemistry along an eutrophic reservoir with determination of the limiting nutrient by in situ nutrient addition (vol 34, pg 713, 1999). WATER RESEARCH. 34 (14), 3690-3690

Underwood, GJC., Nilsson, C., Sundback, K. and Wulff, A., (1999). SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF UVB RADIATION ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE, BIOMASS, PIGMENTS, AND CARBOHYDRATE FRACTIONS IN A BENTHIC DIATOM MAT. Journal of Phycology. 35 (4), 656-666

Thornton, DCO., Underwood, GJC. and Nedwell, DB., (1999). Effect of illumination and emersion period on the exchange of ammonium across the estuarine sediment-water interface. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 184, 11-20

Underwood, GJC. and Kromkamp, J., (1999). Primary Production by Phytoplankton and Microphytobenthos in Estuaries. ADVANCES IN ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH, VOL 29. 29 (C), 93-153

Underwood, GJC. and Smith, DJ., (1998). Predicting Epipelic Diatom Exopolymer Concentrations in Intertidal Sediments from Sediment Chlorophyll a. Microbial Ecology. 35 (2), 116-125

Underwood, GJC. and Smith, DJ., (1998). In situ measurements of exopolymer production by intertidal epipelic diatom-dominated biofilms in the Humber estuary. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 139 (1), 125-134

Smith, DJ. and Underwood, GJC., (1998). Exopolymer production by intertidal epipelic diatoms. Limnology and Oceanography. 43 (7), 1578-1591

Underwood, G., Phillips, J. and Saunders, K., (1998). Distribution of estuarine benthic diatom species along salinity and nutrient gradients. European Journal of Phycology. 33 (2), 173-183

Ellison, JC., (1998). Natural history of Bramble Cay, Torres Strait. Atoll Research Bulletin. 455 (567), 1-31

Underwood, GJC., (1997). Microalgal Colonization in a Saltmarsh Restoration Scheme. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 44 (4), 471-481

Sterrenburg, FAS. and Underwood, GJC., (1997). Studies on the genera Gyrosigma and Pleurosigma (Bacillariophyceae). The marine "Gyrosigma spenceri" records: Gyrosigma limosum Sterrenburg et Underwood nov. sp.. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 148, 165-169

Underwood, GJC., Paterson, DM. and Parkes, RJ., (1995). The measurement of microbial carbohydrate exopolymers from intertidal sediments. Limnology and Oceanography. 40 (7), 1243-1253

Underwood, GJC. and Yallop, ML., (1994). NAVICULA PARGEMINASP. NOV.—A SMALL EPIPELIC SPECIES FROM THE SEVERN ESTUARY, U.K.. Diatom Research. 9 (2), 473-478

Underwood, GJC., (1994). SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN EPIPELIC DIATOM ASSEMBLAGES IN THE SEVERN ESTUARY. Diatom Research. 9 (2), 451-472

Underwood, GJC. and Paterson, DM., (1993). Recovery of intertidal benthic diatoms after biocide treatment and associated sediment dynamics. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 73 (01), 25-25

Underwood, GJC. and Paterson, DM., (1993). Seasonal changes in diatom biomass, sediment stability and biogenic stabilization in the Severn Estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 73 (04), 871-871

UNDERWOOD, GJC. and PATERSON, DM., (1993). SEASONAL-CHANGES IN DIATOM BIOMASS, SEDIMENT STABILITY AND BIOGENIC STABILIZATION IN THE SEVERN ESTUARY. JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 73 (4), 871-887

UNDERWOOD, GJC. and PATERSON, DM., (1993). RECOVERY OF INTERTIDAL BENTHIC DIATOMS AFTER BIOCIDE TREATMENT AND ASSOCIATED SEDIMENT DYNAMICS. JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. 73 (1), 25-45

Underwood, GJC., Thomas, JD. and Baker, JH., (1992). An experimental investigation of interactions in snail-macrophyte-epiphyte systems. Oecologia. 91 (4), 587-595

Paterson, DM. and Underwood, GJC., (1992). The mudflat ecosystem and epipelic diatoms. The coast of Avon, 74-82

Underwood, GJC., (1991). Note: Colonization and invasion of leaves of the aquatic macrophyteCeratophyllum demersum L. by epiphytic bacteria. Microbial Ecology. 21 (1), 267-275

UNDERWOOD, GRAHAMJC., (1991). Growth enhancement of the macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum in the presence of the snail Planorbis planorbis: the effect of grazing and chemical conditioning. Freshwater Biology. 26 (2), 325-334

Underwood, GJC. and Baker, JH., (1991). The effect of various aquatic bacteria on the growth and senescence of duckweed (Lemna minor). Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 70 (3), 192-196

UNDERWOOD, GRAHAMJC. and THOMAS, JD., (1990). Grazing interactions between pulmonate snails and epiphytic algae and bacteria. Freshwater Biology. 23 (3), 505-522

Book chapters (2)

Nedwell, DB., Underwood, GJC., McGenity, TJ., Whitby, C. and Dumbrell, AJ., (2016). The Colne Estuary. In: Advances in Ecological Research. Elsevier. 227- 281. 9780081009352

Underwood, GJC., (2001). Microphytobenthos. In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. Elsevier. 807- 814. 9780123744739

Conferences (3)

LWarren, S., Mckew, BA., Whitby, C. and Underwood, GJC., (2015). LIGHT AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON DRIVE INTERACTIONS WITHIN RIVER MICROPHYTOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES

Underwood, GJC. and Aslam, SN., (2015). ADAPTATION OF DIATOM EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCE (EPS) PRODUCTION IN RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY STRESS IN SEA ICE ENVIRONMENTS

Paterson, DM., Perkins, R., Consalvey, M. and Underwood, GJC., (2003). Ecosystem function, cell micro-cycling and the structure of transient biofilms.

Grants and funding

2018

Suffolk Marine Pioneer - Deben salt marsh status

Suffolk County Council

2016

NanoBioCar - Impacts of Nanoparticles on microphytobenthic Biofilms and consequences on the Carbon cycle

European Commission (H2020)

2014

Colne Estuary Partnership Conference

Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners

Data Synthesis and Management of Marine and Coastal Carbon

Natural Environment Research Council

The Role of Lateral Exchange in Modulating the Seaward Flux of C.N.P

Natural Environment Research Council

2013

Salt Marsh Berm Surveys

Environment Agency

2012

A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem

Natural Environment Research Council

The Role of Lateral Echange in Modulating the Seaward Flux of CNP

Natural Environment Research Council

The key role of DOM in regulating microbial diversity, community structure and

Natural Environment Research Council

2011

Environmental meta-genomics and biotechnology of Rhazya

King Abdulaziz University

WFD status in TraC waters..

Environment Agency

2010

Colne Estuary Partnerships

Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners

2009

Research Support for the CEP

Brightlingsea Harbour Commissioners

2008

Lobster Feeding Project

Colchester Oyster Fisheries

Contact

gjcu@essex.ac.uk
+44 (0) 1206 873337

Location:

6.313, Colchester Campus