Professor Christine Raines

Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Research) and Professor (R)
School of Biological Sciences
Professor Christine Raines
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873557/3310

  • Location

    5S.5.24 / 3SW.5.45, Colchester Campus



Posts and Training October 1985 Post-doctoral Researcher, Institute of Plant Science Research, Cambridge.? August 1988 Lecturer, Department of Biology, University of Essex October 1995 Senior Lecturer, Biological Sciences, University of Essex October 2002 Reader, Biological Sciences, University of Essex October 2004 Professor, Biological Sciences, University of Essex February - April 2000 Visiting Fellow, RSBS, ANU, Canberra - Editor in Chief of the Journal of Experimental Botany - Member of SEB Plant Section Committee - Member of SEB Council Current Funding Illnois-Gates subcontract RIPE project - Re-engineering of carbon metabolism 2013-2017 BBSRC-IWYP - Realising increased photosynthetic efficiency to increase wheat yields, 350 K PI (1/1/2016-31/12/2018) Group Members Postdoctoral Researchers: Andrew Simkin,Patricia Lopez, Stuart Fisk Research Technician: Kenny Brown PhD Students:Amani Abuzaid,Bandar Aljuaid,Saqer Alotaibi, Mohammed Alqurashi External Research Collaborations Professor Matin Parry Rothamsted Research, UK Professor Stephen Long, Illinois, US

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Transgenic manipulation of leaf carbon metabolism to imporve crop yield

The role of plant biotechnology in the production of plants for improved yield for food and fuel

Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and links to thiamine biosynthesis

Regualtion of the Calvin Benson Cycle by the CP12 protein


Journal articles (86)

Alotaibi, SS., Sparks, CA., Parry, MAJ., Simkin, AJ. and Raines, CA., (2018). Identification of leaf promoters for use in transgenic wheat. Plants. 7 (2), 27-27

Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Fisk, S., Brown, KL., Bull, SE., South, PF. and Raines, CA., (2018). Overexpressing the H-protein of the glycine cleavage system increases biomass yield in glasshouse and field grown transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal

Pennacchi, JP., Carmo-Silva, E., Andralojc, PJ., Lawson, T., Allen, AM., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2018). Stability of wheat grain yields over three field seasons in the UK. Food and Energy Security

Raines, C. and Ingram, J., (2018). JXB at SEB Florence 2018. Journal of Experimental Botany. 69 (16), 3797-3799

Elena López-Calcagno, P., Omar Abuzaid, A., Lawson, T. and Anne Raines, C., (2017). Arabidopsis CP12 mutants have reduced levels of phosphoribulokinase and impaired function of the Calvin–Benson cycle. Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (9), 2285-2298

Vialet-Chabrand, S., Matthews, JSA., Simkin, AJ., Raines, CA. and Lawson, T., (2017). Importance of Fluctuations in Light on Plant Photosynthetic Acclimation. Plant Physiology. 173 (4), 2163-2179

Driever, SM., Simkin, AJ., Alotaibi, S., Fisk, S., Madgwick, PJ., Sparks, CA., Jones, HD., Lawson, T., Parry, MAJ. and Raines, CA., (2017). Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 372 (1730), 20160384-20160384

Exposito-Rodriguez, M., Laissue, PP., López-Calcagno, PE., Mullineaux, PM., Raines, CA. and Simkin, AJ., (2017). Development of pGEMINI, a Plant Gateway Destination Vector Allowing the Simultaneous Integration of Two cDNA via a Single LR-Clonase Reaction. Plants. 6 (4), 55-55

Carmo-Silva, E., Andralojc, PJ., Scales, JC., Driever, SM., Mead, A., Lawson, T., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2017). Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield. Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (13), 3473-3486

Simkin, AJ., McAusland, L., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2017). Overexpression of the RieskeFeS Protein Increases Electron Transport Rates and Biomass Yield. Plant Physiology. 175 (1), 134-145

Raines, C., Traynor, M. and Ingram, J., (2017). Experimental botany in 2017. Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (3), 347-349

Simkin, AJ., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Davey, PA., Headland, LR., Lawson, T., Timm, S., Bauwe, H. and Raines, CA., (2017). Simultaneous stimulation of sedoheptulose 1,7‐bisphosphatase, fructose 1,6‐bisphophate aldolase and the photorespiratory glycine decarboxylase‐H protein increases CO2 assimilation, vegetative biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 15 (7), 805-816

Raines, C., (2016). Accessible research in JXB. Journal of Experimental Botany. 67 (3), 553-553

Khozaei, M., Fisk, S., Lawson, T., Gibon, Y., Sulpice, R., Stitt, M., Lefebvre, SC. and Raines, CA., (2016). Overexpression of plastid transketolase in tobacco results in a thiamine auxotrophic phenotype (vol 27, pg 432, 2015) Correction. Plant Cell. 28 (7), 1752-1754

Simkin, AJ., McAusland, L., Headland, LR., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2015). Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (13), 4075-4090

Khozaei, M., Fisk, S., Lawson, T., Gibon, Y., Sulpice, R., Stitt, M., Lefebvre, SC. and Raines, CA., (2015). Overexpression of Plastid Transketolase in Tobacco Results in a Thiamine Auxotrophic Phenotype. The Plant Cell. 27 (2), 432-447

McKew, BA., Metodieva, G., Raines, CA., Metodiev, MV. and Geider, RJ., (2015). Acclimation of E miliania huxleyi (1516) to nutrient limitation involves precise modification of the proteome to scavenge alternative sources of N and P. Environmental Microbiology. 17 (10), 4050-4062

Johnson, GN., Lawson, T., Murchie, EH. and Raines, C., (2015). Photosynthesis in variable environments. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (9), 2371-2372

Patron, NJ., Orzaez, D., Marillonnet, S., Warzecha, H., Matthewman, C., Youles, M., Raitskin, O., Leveau, A., Farré, G., Rogers, C., Smith, A., Hibberd, J., Webb, AAR., Locke, J., Schornack, S., Ajioka, J., Baulcombe, DC., Zipfel, C., Kamoun, S., Jones, JDG., Kuhn, H., Robatzek, S., Van Esse, HP., Sanders, D., Oldroyd, G., Martin, C., Field, R., O'Connor, S., Fox, S., Wulff, B., Miller, B., Breakspear, A., Radhakrishnan, G., Delaux, P-M., Loqué, D., Granell, A., Tissier, A., Shih, P., Brutnell, TP., Quick, WP., Rischer, H., Fraser, PD., Aharoni, A., Raines, C., South, PF., Ané, J-M., Hamberger, BR., Langdale, J., Stougaard, J., Bouwmeester, H., Udvardi, M., Murray, JAH., Ntoukakis, V., Schäfer, P., Denby, K., Edwards, KJ., Osbourn, A. and Haseloff, J., (2015). Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts. New Phytologist. 208 (1), 13-19

Driever, SM., Lawson, T., Andralojc, PJ., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2014). Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany. 65 (17), 4959-4973

López-Calcagno, PE., Howard, TP. and Raines, CA., (2014). The CP12 protein family: a thioredoxin-mediated metabolic switch?. Frontiers in Plant Science. 5 (JAN), 9-

McKew, BA., Davey, P., Finch, SJ., Hopkins, J., Lefebvre, SC., Metodiev, MV., Oxborough, K., Raines, CA., Lawson, T. and Geider, RJ., (2013). The trade-off between the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins dominates light acclimation in Emiliania huxleyi (clone CCMP 1516). New Phytologist. 200 (1), 74-85

Mckew, BA., Lefebvre, SC., Achterberg, EP., Metodieva, G., Raines, CA., Metodiev, MV. and Geider, RJ., (2013). Plasticity in the proteome of Emiliania huxleyi CCMP 1516 to extremes of light is highly targeted. New Phytologist. 200 (1), 61-73

Stanley, DN., Raines, CA. and Kerfeld, CA., (2013). Comparative Analysis of 126 Cyanobacterial Genomes Reveals Evidence of Functional Diversity Among Homologs of the Redox-Regulated CP12 Protein. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 161 (2), 824-835

Read, BA., Kegel, J., Klute, MJ., Kuo, A., Lefebvre, SC., Maumus, F., Mayer, C., Miller, J., Monier, A., Salamov, A., Young, J., Aguilar, M., Claverie, J-M., Frickenhaus, S., Gonzalez, K., Herman, EK., Lin, Y-C., Napier, J., Ogata, H., Sarno, AF., Shmutz, J., Schroeder, D., de Vargas, C., Verret, F., von Dassow, P., Valentin, K., Van de Peer, Y., Wheeler, G., Dacks, JB., Delwiche, CF., Dyhrman, ST., Glöckner, G., John, U., Richards, T., Worden, AZ., Zhang, X. and Grigoriev, IV., (2013). Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature. 499 (7457), 209-213

Lawson, T., Kramer, DM. and Raines, CA., (2012). Improving yield by exploiting mechanisms underlying natural variation of photosynthesis. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 23 (2), 215-220

(2012). Editorial. Journal of Experimental Botany. 63 (1), iv-iv

Raines, CA., (2011). Increasing Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation in C3 Plants to Improve Crop Yield: Current and Future Strategies. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 155 (1), 36-42

Howard, TP., Fryer, MJ., Singh, P., Metodiev, M., Lytovchenko, A., Obata, T., Fernie, AR., Kruger, NJ., Quick, WP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Antisense Suppression of the Small Chloroplast Protein CP12 in Tobacco Alters Carbon Partitioning and Severely Restricts Growth. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 157 (2), 620-631

Howard, TP., Upton, GJG., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Antisense suppression of the small chloroplast protein CP12 in tobacco: A transcriptional viewpoint. Plant Signaling & Behavior. 6 (12), 2026-2030

Howard, TP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Inter-species variation in the oligomeric states of the higher plant Calvin cycle enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoribulokinase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62 (11), 3799-3805

Rosenthal, DM., Locke, AM., Khozaei, M., Raines, CA., Long, SP. and Ort, DR., (2011). Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE). BMC Plant Biology. 11 (1), 123-123

Parry, MAJ., Reynolds, M., Salvucci, ME., Raines, C., Andralojc, PJ., Zhu, X-G., Price, GD., Condon, AG. and Furbank, RT., (2011). Raising yield potential of wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62 (2), 453-467

Lefebvre, SC., Harris, G., Webster, R., Leonardos, N., Geider, RJ., Raines, CA., Read, BA. and Garrido, JL., (2010). CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE Lhcf GENE FAMILY IN EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES TO LIGHT AND CO21. Journal of Phycology. 46 (1), 123-134

Groben, R., Kaloudas, D., Raines, CA., Offmann, B., Maberly, SC. and Gontero, B., (2010). Comparative sequence analysis of CP12, a small protein involved in the formation of a Calvin cycle complex in photosynthetic organisms. Photosynthesis Research. 103 (3), 183-194

Raines, C., Sahrawy Barragan, M. and Merida Berlanga, A., (2009). Preface. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60 (10), 2877-2877

Singh, P., Kaloudas, D. and Raines, CA., (2008). Expression analysis of the Arabidopsis CP12 gene family suggests novel roles for these proteins in roots and floral tissues. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (14), 3975-3985

Lawson, T., Lefebvre, S., Baker, NR., Morison, JIL. and Raines, CA., (2008). Reductions in mesophyll and guard cell photosynthesis impact on the control of stomatal responses to light and CO2. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (13), 3609-3619

Howard, TP., Metodiev, M., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2008). Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (10), 4056-4061

RAINES, CA., (2006). Transgenic approaches to manipulate the environmental responses of the C3 carbon fixation cycle. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (3), 331-339

Raines, C., (2006). Products of leaf primary carbon metabolism modulate the developmental programme determining plant morphology. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57 (9), 1857-1862

LAWSON, T., BRYANT, B., LEFEBVRE, S., LLOYD, JC. and RAINES, CA., (2006). Decreased SBPase activity alters growth and development in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (1), 48-58

DAVEY, PA., OLCER, H., ZAKHLENIUK, O., BERNACCHI, CJ., CALFAPIETRA, C., LONG, SP. and RAINES, CA., (2006). Can fast-growing plantation trees escape biochemical down-regulation of photosynthesis when grown throughout their complete production cycle in the open air under elevated carbon dioxide?. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (7), 1235-1244

LIBERLOO, M., CALFAPIETRA, C., LUKAC, M., GODBOLD, D., LUO, Z-B., POLLE, A., HOOSBEEK, MR., KULL, O., MAREK, M., RAINES, C., RUBINO, M., TAYLOR, G., SCARASCIA-MUGNOZZA, G. and CEULEMANS, R., (2006). Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio-energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world. Global Change Biology. 12 (6), 1094-1106

(2005). CORRECTION. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 138 (2), 1174-1174

Lefebvre, S., (2005). Increased Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Activity in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Stimulates Photosynthesis and Growth from an Early Stage in Development. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 138 (1), 451-460

Raines, C., (2005). Preface to Redox Regulation of Leaf Metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany. 56 (416), iv-iv

Lefebvre, S., Lawson, T., Zakhleniuk, OV., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2005). Increased sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase activity in transgenic tobacco plants stimulates photosynthesis and growth from an early stage in development. (vol 138, pg 451, 2005). PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 138 (2), 1174-1174


von Caemmerer, S., Lawson, T., Oxborough, K., Baker, NR., Andrews, TJ. and Raines, CA., (2004). Stomatal conductance does not correlate with photosynthetic capacity in transgenic tobacco with reduced amounts of Rubisco. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55 (400), 1157-1166

Raines, CA., (2003). The Calvin cycle revisited. Photosynthesis Research. 75 (1), 1-10

Bernacchi, CJ., Calfapietra, C., Davey, PA., Wittig, VE., Scarascia-Mugnozza, GE., Raines, CA. and Long, SP., (2003). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses of poplars to free-air CO2 enrichment (PopFACE) during the first growth cycle and immediately following coppice. New Phytologist. 159 (3), 609-621

Naidu, SL., (2003). Cold Tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus x giganteus: Adaptation in Amounts and Sequence of C4 Photosynthetic Enzymes. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 132 (3), 1688-1697

Poolman, MG., Fell, DA. and Raines, CA., (2003). Elementary modes analysis of photosynthate metabolism in the chloroplast stroma. European Journal of Biochemistry. 270 (3), 430-439

Poolman, MG., Ölçer, H., Lloyd, JC., Raines, CA. and Fell, DA., (2001). Computer modelling and experimental evidence for two steady states in the photosynthetic Calvin cycle. European Journal of Biochemistry. 268 (10), 2810-2816

Harrison, EP., Olcer, H., Lloyd, JC., Long, SP. and Raines, CA., (2001). Small decreases in SBPase cause a linear decline in the apparent RuBP regeneration rate, but do not affect Rubisco carboxylation capacity. Journal of Experimental Botany. 52 (362), 1779-1784

Zakhleniuk, OV., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (2001). pho3 : a phosphorus-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.. Planta. 212 (4), 529-534

Olcer, H., (2001). Photosynthetic Capacity Is Differentially Affected by Reductions in Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Activity during Leaf Development in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 125 (2), 982-989

Raines, CA., Harrison, EP., Ölçer, H. and Lloyd, JC., (2000). Investigating the role of the thiol-regulated enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the control of photosynthesis. Physiologia Plantarum. 110 (3), 303-308

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1999). New insights into the structure and function of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase; an important but neglected Calvin cycle enzyme. Journal of Experimental Botany. 50 (330), 1-8

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1999). Erratum: New insights into the structure and function of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase; An important but neglected Calvin cycle enzyme (Journal of Experimental Botany (Jan. 1999) 50:330 (1-8)). Journal of Experimental Botany. 50 (335), 881-

Rogers, A., Fischer, BU., Bryant, J., Frehner, M., Blum, H., Raines, CA. and Long, SP., (1998). Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Elevated CO 2 under Low-Nitrogen Nutrition Is Affected by the Capacity for Assimilate Utilization. Perennial Ryegrass under Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment. Plant Physiology. 118 (2), 683-689

Dunford, RP., Catley, MA., Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1998). Purification of Active Chloroplast Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Expressed inEscherichia coli. Protein Expression and Purification. 14 (1), 139-145

Harrison, EP., Willingham, NM., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1997). Reduced sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase levels in transgenic tobacco lead to decreased photosynthetic capacity and altered carbohydrate accumulation. Planta. 204 (1), 27-36

Barnes, JD., Bettarini, I., Polle, A., Slee, N., Raines, C., Miglietta, F., Raschi, A. and Fordham, M., (1997). The impact of elevated CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis in Agrostis canina L. ssp. monteluccii adapted to contrasting atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Oecologia. 110 (2), 169-178

JONES, PG., LLOYD, JC. and RAINES, CA., (1996). Glucose feeding of intact wheat plants represses the expression of a number of Calvin cycle genes. Plant, Cell and Environment. 19 (2), 231-236

Bringloe, DH., Rao, SK., Dyer, TA., Raines, CA. and Bradbeer, JW., (1996). Differential gene expression of chloroplast and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase in tobacco. Plant Molecular Biology. 30 (3), 637-640

Jones, PG., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (1995). Nucleotide Sequence of a Wheat Chloroplastic Phosphoglycerate Kinase Gene. Plant Physiology. 107 (4), 1483-1484

Willingham, NM., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1994). Molecular cloning of the Arabidopsis thaliana sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase gene and expression studies in wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 26 (4), 1191-1200

Miles, AJ., Potts, SC., Willingham, NM., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (1993). A light- and developmentally-regulated DNA-binding interaction is common to the upstream sequences of the wheat Calvin cycle bisphosphatase genes. Plant Molecular Biology. 22 (3), 507-516

Ko�mann, J., M�ller-R�ber, B., Dyer, TA., Raines, CA., Sonnewald, U. and Willmitzer, L., (1992). Cloning and expression analysis of the plastidic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase coding sequence from potato: circumstantial evidence for the import of hexoses into chloroplasts. Planta. 188 (1), 7-12

Devos, K., Atkinson, M., Chinoy, C., Lloyd, J., Raines, C., Dyer, T. and Gale, M., (1992). The coding sequence for sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase detects multiple homologues in wheat genomic DNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 85-85 (2-3), 133-135

Raines, CA., Horsnell, PR., Holder, C. and Lloyd, JC., (1992). Arabidopsis thaliana carbonic anhydrase: cDNA sequence and effect of CO2 on mRNA levels. Plant Molecular Biology. 20 (6), 1143-1148

RAINES, CA., LLOYD, JC., WILLINGHAM, NM., POTTS, S. and DYER, TA., (1992). cDNA and gene sequences of wheat chloroplast sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase reveal homology with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases. European Journal of Biochemistry. 205 (3), 1053-1059

Horsnell, PR. and Raines, CA., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase fromArabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 185-186

Meadows, J., Hulford, A., Raines, C. and Robinson, C., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the precursor of the 33 kDa protein of the oxygen-evolving complex from wheat. Plant Molecular Biology. 16 (6), 1085-1087

Horsnell, PR. and Raines, CA., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding chloroplast phosphoribulokinase fromArabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 183-184

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1991). Molecular biology of the C3 photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Photosynthesis Research. 27 (1), 1-14

Lloyd, JC., Raines, CA., John, UP. and Dyer, TAA., (1991). The chloroplast FBPase gene of wheat: structure and expression of the promoter in photosynthetic and meristematic cells of transgenic tobacco plants. MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 225 (2), 209-216

Lloyd, JC., Horsnell, PR., Dyer, TA. and Raines, CA., (1991). Structure and sequence of a wheat phosphoribulokinase gene. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 167-168

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC., Chao, S., John, UP. and Murphy, GJP., (1991). A novel proline-rich protein from wheat. Plant Molecular Biology. 16 (4), 663-670

Chao, S., Raines, CA., Longstaff, M., Sharp, PJ., Gale, MD. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Chromosomal location and copy number in wheat and some of its close relatives of genes for enzymes involved in photosynthesis. MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 218 (3), 423-430

Raines, CA., Longstaff, M., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Complete coding sequence of wheat phosphoribulokinase: Developmental and light-dependent expression of the mRNA. Molecular and General Genetics. 220 (1), 43-48

Longstaff, M., Raines, CA., McMorrow, EM., Bradbeer, J. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Wheat phospboglycerate kinase: evidence for recombination between toe genes for the chloroplastic and cytosolk enzymes. Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (16), 6569-6580

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC., Longstaff, M., Bradley, D. and Dyer, T., (1988). Chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: the product of a mosaic gene. Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (16), 7931-7942

Raines, C. and Hipkins, M., (1988). Proteolytic enzymes stimulate both the ATP synthesis and hydrolysis functions of the chloroplast ATPase complex. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 933 (1), 172-178

Conferences (11)

Raines, CA., Howard, TP., Fernie, A. and Lloyd, JC., (2009). CP12 mediated redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism is essential for leaf development

Raines, C., (2007). Preface

Raines, C., (2006). Preface

Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., De Angelis, P., Sabatti, M., Calfapietra, C., Miglietta, F., Raines, C., Godbold, D., Hoosbeek, M., Taylor, G., Polle, A. and Ceulemans, R., (2005). Global change and agro-forest ecosystems: Adaptation and mitigation in a FACE experiment on a poplar plantation

Howard, T., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2005). The role of Calvin cycle protein complexes in chloroplast metabolism

Raines, C. and Baker, N., (2004). Journal of Experimental Botany: Preface

LLOYD, JC., ZAKHLENIUK, OV. and RAINES, CA., (2001). Identification of mutants in phosphorus metabolism

Rogers, A., Bryant, JB., Raines, CA., Long, SP., Blum, H. and Frehner, M., (1995). Acclimation of photosynthesis to rising CO2 concentration in the field, is it determined by source/sink balance?

Harrison, EP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1995). Reduced SBPase levels in transgenic tobacco lead to decreased photosynthetic capacity

Vinnell, MP., Raines, CA. and Baker, NR., (1995). Response of thylakoid membrane proteins during shade-adaptation in Silene dioica.

Long, SP., Baker, NR. and Raines, CA., (1993). Analysing the responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration

Grants and funding


RAINES 170309

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


Newton Fund: PhD Placement grant

British Council


PHOTOWHEAT: Exploiting variation in stomatal dynamics and ear photosynthesis to optimise wheat productivity.

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


15-IWYP Realising increased photosynthetic efficiency to increase wheat yield

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council

15-IWYP - Wider and faster: high-throughout phenotypic exploration of novel genetic variation for breeding high biomass and yield in wheat

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


Improving the Thermal Tolerance of Photosynthesis in Wheat

Rothamsted Research Ltd

RIPE: Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency for Sustainable Increases in Crop Yield

University of Illinois


Manipulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in wheat to improve yield

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council

Metabolic engineering to enhance photosynthesis based on empirical data and in silico modelling

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


Resource Utilization by Phytoplankton

Natural Environment Research Council


Response Of Emiliania Huxleyi To A High Co2 World

Natural Environment Research Council

+44 (0) 1206 873557/3310


5S.5.24 / 3SW.5.45, Colchester Campus