Professor Christine Raines

School of Life Sciences
Professor Christine Raines
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873557/3310

  • Location

    5S.5.24 / 3SW.5.45, Colchester Campus



Posts and Training October 1985 Post-doctoral Researcher, Institute of Plant Science Research, Cambridge.? August 1988 Lecturer, Department of Biology, University of Essex October 1995 Senior Lecturer, Biological Sciences, University of Essex October 2002 Reader, Biological Sciences, University of Essex October 2004 Professor, Biological Sciences, University of Essex February - April 2000 Visiting Fellow, RSBS, ANU, Canberra Past Editor in Chief of the Journal of Experimental Botany Past President of SEB and Member of SEB Council Former Chair and member of SEB Plant Section Committee Current Funding Illnois-Gates subcontract RIPE project - Re-engineering of carbon metabolism 2017-2022 EU Horizon2020 CAPITALISE project - 2020-2025 Current Group Members Postdoctoral Researchers Dr Patricia Lopez Dr Chidi Afamefule Dr Hussein Gherli Dr Beatriz Moreno-Garcia Dr Virginie Mengin Research Technician Dr Nicola Lally Past Lab Members- least 5 years Postdoctoral Researchers: Andrew Simkin, Stuart Fisk Research Technician: Kenny Brown PhD Students:Amani Abuzaid,Bandar Aljuaid,Saqer Alotaibi, Mohammed Alqurashi External Research Collaborations Professor Matin Parry Rothamsted Research, UK Professor Stephen Long, Illinois, US Professor Susanne von Caemmerer, Canberra, AUS Dr Johannes Kromdijk, Cambridge UK Dr Elizabete Carmo-Silva Lancaster

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Transgenic manipulation of leaf carbon metabolism to imporve crop yield

Open to supervise

The role of plant biotechnology in the production of plants for improved yield for food and fuel

Open to supervise

Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and links to thiamine biosynthesis

Open to supervise

Regualtion of the Calvin Benson Cycle by the CP12 protein

Open to supervise

Teaching and supervision

Previous supervision

Kenny Lee Brown
Kenny Lee Brown
Thesis title: Field Trials to Phenotype Transgenic Tobacco Plants with Improved Rubp Regeneration
Degree subject: Cell and Molecular Biology
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 29/1/2020
Mohammed Khader H Alqurashi
Mohammed Khader H Alqurashi
Thesis title: Investigating the Role of Rap2.12 and Gapdh in Photosynthetic Co2 Fixation to Improve Drought Tolerance
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 2/5/2019
Amani Omar S Abuzaid
Amani Omar S Abuzaid
Thesis title: Functional Analysis of the Cp12 Gene Family in Arabidopsis
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 30/8/2017
Bandar Saleh S Aljuaid
Bandar Saleh S Aljuaid
Thesis title: Identification and Analysis of Arabidopsis Thiamine Pyrophosphate Transporters
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 5/4/2017
Saqer Sultan H Alotaibi
Saqer Sultan H Alotaibi
Thesis title: Transgenic Approaches to Improve Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Use in Wheat
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 28/11/2016
Stuart James Fisk
Stuart James Fisk
Thesis title: The Effect of Increased Plastid Transketolase Activity on Thiamine Metabolism in Transgenic Tobacco Plants
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 17/11/2015
Joanna Clare Scales
Joanna Clare Scales
Thesis title: Improving the Thermal Tolerance of Photosynthesis in Wheat
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 29/10/2015
Patricia Elena Lopez Calcagno
Patricia Elena Lopez Calcagno
Thesis title: Analysis of Insertion Mutants and Construction of Transgenic Plants for the Investigation of the Cp12 Protein Family in Arabidopsis Thaliana
Degree subject: Biological Sciences
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 4/7/2013


Journal articles (94)

Moreno-García, B., López-Calcagno, PE., Raines, CA. and Sweetlove, LJ., (2022). Suppression of metabolite shuttles for export of chloroplast and mitochondrial ATP and NADPH increases the cytosolic NADH:NAD+ ratio in tobacco leaves in the dark. Journal of Plant Physiology. 268, 153578-153578

Heyno, E., Ermakova, M., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Woodford, R., Brown, KL., Matthews, JSA., Osmond, B., Raines, CA. and Caemmerer, SV., (2022). Rieske FeS overexpression in tobacco provides increased abundance and activity of Cytochrome b6f

Raines, CA., (2022). Improving plant productivity by re‐tuning the regeneration of RuBP in the Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle. New Phytologist

Ruiz-Vera, UM., Acevedo-Siaca, LG., Brown, KL., Afamefule, C., Gherli, H., Simkin, AJ., Long, SP., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2022). Field-grown ictB tobacco transformants show no difference in photosynthetic efficiency for biomass relative to the wild type.. Journal of Experimental Botany. 73 (14), 4897-4907

Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Brown, KL., Simkin, AJ., Fisk, SJ., Vialet-Chabrand, S., Lawson, T. and Raines, C., (2020). Stimulating photosynthetic processes increases productivity and water use efficiency in the field. Nature Plants. 6 (8), 1054-1063

Afamefule, C. and Raines, CA., (2020). Insights Into the Regulation of the Expression Pattern of Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle Enzymes in C₃ and C₄ Grasses. Frontiers in Plant Science. 11, 570436-

Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Fisk, S., Brown, KL., Bull, SE., South, PF. and Raines, CA., (2019). Overexpressing the H-protein of the glycine cleavage system increases biomass yield in glasshouse and field grown transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 17 (1), 141-151

Simkin, AJ., López-Calcagno, PE. and Raines, CA., (2019). Feeding the world: improving photosynthetic efficiency for sustainable crop production. Journal of Experimental Botany. 70 (4), 1119-1140

Faralli, M., Cockram, J., Ober, E., Wall, S., Galle, A., Van Rie, J., Raines, C. and Lawson, T., (2019). Genotypic, Developmental and Environmental Effects on the Rapidity of gs in Wheat: Impacts on Carbon Gain and Water-Use Efficiency. Frontiers in Plant Science. 10, 492-

Meacham-Hensold, K., Montes, CM., Wu, J., Guan, K., Fu, P., Ainsworth, EA., Pederson, T., Moore, CE., Brown, KL., Raines, C. and Bernacchi, CJ., (2019). High-throughput field phenotyping using hyperspectral reflectance and partial least squares regression (PLSR) reveals genetic modifications to photosynthetic capacity. Remote Sensing of Environment. 231, 111176-111176

Ermakova, M., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Raines, CA., Furbank, RT. and von Caemmerer, S., (2019). Overexpression of the Rieske FeS protein of the Cytochrome b 6 f complex increases C4 photosynthesis in Setaria viridis.. Communications Biology. 2 (1), 314-

Pennacchi, JP., Carmo-Silva, E., Andralojc, PJ., Lawson, T., Allen, AM., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2019). Stability of wheat grain yields over three field seasons in the UK. Food and Energy Security. 8 (2), e00147-e00147

Alotaibi, SS., Sparks, CA., Parry, MAJ., Simkin, AJ. and Raines, CA., (2018). Identification of leaf promoters for use in transgenic wheat. Plants. 7 (2), 27-27

South, PF., Cavanagh, AP., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Raines, CA. and Ort, DR., (2018). Optimizing photorespiration for improved crop productivity. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 60 (12), 1217-1230

Simkin, AJ., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Davey, PA., Headland, LR., Lawson, T., Timm, S., Bauwe, H. and Raines, CA., (2017). Simultaneous stimulation of sedoheptulose 1,7‐bisphosphatase, fructose 1,6‐bisphophate aldolase and the photorespiratory glycine decarboxylase‐H protein increases CO2 assimilation, vegetative biomass and seed yield in Arabidopsis. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 15 (7), 805-816

Vialet-Chabrand, S., Matthews, JSA., Simkin, AJ., Raines, CA. and Lawson, T., (2017). Importance of Fluctuations in Light on Plant Photosynthetic Acclimation. Plant Physiology. 173 (4), 2163-2179

Elena López-Calcagno, P., Omar Abuzaid, A., Lawson, T. and Anne Raines, C., (2017). Arabidopsis CP12 mutants have reduced levels of phosphoribulokinase and impaired function of the Calvin–Benson cycle. Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (9), 2285-2298

Simkin, AJ., McAusland, L., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2017). Overexpression of the RieskeFeS Protein Increases Electron Transport Rates and Biomass Yield. Plant Physiology. 175 (1), 134-145

Driever, SM., Simkin, AJ., Alotaibi, S., Fisk, S., Madgwick, PJ., Sparks, CA., Jones, HD., Lawson, T., Parry, MAJ. and Raines, CA., (2017). Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 372 (1730), 20160384-20160384

Carmo-Silva, E., Andralojc, PJ., Scales, JC., Driever, SM., Mead, A., Lawson, T., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2017). Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield. Journal of Experimental Botany. 68 (13), 3473-3486

Exposito-Rodriguez, M., Laissue, PP., López-Calcagno, PE., Mullineaux, PM., Raines, CA. and Simkin, AJ., (2017). Development of pGEMINI, a Plant Gateway Destination Vector Allowing the Simultaneous Integration of Two cDNA via a Single LR-Clonase Reaction. Plants. 6 (4), 55-55

Raines, C., (2016). Accessible research inJXB. Journal of Experimental Botany. 67 (3), 553-553

Simkin, AJ., McAusland, L., Headland, LR., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2015). Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (13), 4075-4090

McKew, BA., Metodieva, G., Raines, CA., Metodiev, MV. and Geider, RJ., (2015). Acclimation ofEmiliania huxleyi(1516) to nutrient limitation involves precise modification of the proteome to scavenge alternative sources of N and P. Environmental Microbiology. 17 (10), 4050-4062

Khozaei, M., Fisk, S., Lawson, T., Gibon, Y., Sulpice, R., Stitt, M., Lefebvre, SC. and Raines, CA., (2015). Overexpression of Plastid Transketolase in Tobacco Results in a Thiamine Auxotrophic Phenotype. The Plant Cell. 27 (2), 432-447

Johnson, GN., Lawson, T., Murchie, EH. and Raines, C., (2015). Photosynthesis in variable environments. Journal of Experimental Botany. 66 (9), 2371-2372

Patron, NJ., Orzaez, D., Marillonnet, S., Warzecha, H., Matthewman, C., Youles, M., Raitskin, O., Leveau, A., Farré, G., Rogers, C., Smith, A., Hibberd, J., Webb, AAR., Locke, J., Schornack, S., Ajioka, J., Baulcombe, DC., Zipfel, C., Kamoun, S., Jones, JDG., Kuhn, H., Robatzek, S., Van Esse, HP., Sanders, D., Oldroyd, G., Martin, C., Field, R., O'Connor, S., Fox, S., Wulff, B., Miller, B., Breakspear, A., Radhakrishnan, G., Delaux, P., Loqué, D., Granell, A., Tissier, A., Shih, P., Brutnell, TP., Quick, WP., Rischer, H., Fraser, PD., Aharoni, A., Raines, C., South, PF., Ané, J., Hamberger, BR., Langdale, J., Stougaard, J., Bouwmeester, H., Udvardi, M., Murray, JAH., Ntoukakis, V., Schäfer, P., Denby, K., Edwards, KJ., Osbourn, A. and Haseloff, J., (2015). Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts. New Phytologist. 208 (1), 13-19

López-Calcagno, PE., Howard, TP. and Raines, CA., (2014). The CP12 protein family: a thioredoxin-mediated metabolic switch?. Frontiers in Plant Science. 5 (JAN), 9-

Driever, SM., Lawson, T., Andralojc, PJ., Raines, CA. and Parry, MAJ., (2014). Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany. 65 (17), 4959-4973

Mckew, BA., Lefebvre, SC., Achterberg, EP., Metodieva, G., Raines, CA., Metodiev, MV. and Geider, RJ., (2013). Plasticity in the proteome of Emiliania huxleyi CCMP 1516 to extremes of light is highly targeted. New Phytologist. 200 (1), 61-73

McKew, BA., Davey, P., Finch, SJ., Hopkins, J., Lefebvre, SC., Metodiev, MV., Oxborough, K., Raines, CA., Lawson, T. and Geider, RJ., (2013). The trade‐off between the light‐harvesting and photoprotective functions of fucoxanthin‐chlorophyll proteins dominates light acclimation in Emiliania huxleyi (clone CCMP 1516). New Phytologist. 200 (1), 74-85

Stanley, DN., Raines, CA. and Kerfeld, CA., (2013). Comparative Analysis of 126 Cyanobacterial Genomes Reveals Evidence of Functional Diversity Among Homologs of the Redox-Regulated CP12 Protein    . Plant Physiology. 161 (2), 824-835

Read, BA., Kegel, J., Klute, MJ., Kuo, A., Lefebvre, SC., Maumus, F., Mayer, C., Miller, J., Monier, A., Salamov, A., Young, J., Aguilar, M., Claverie, J-M., Frickenhaus, S., Gonzalez, K., Herman, EK., Lin, Y-C., Napier, J., Ogata, H., Sarno, AF., Shmutz, J., Schroeder, D., de Vargas, C., Verret, F., von Dassow, P., Valentin, K., Van de Peer, Y., Wheeler, G., Dacks, JB., Delwiche, CF., Dyhrman, ST., Glöckner, G., John, U., Richards, T., Worden, AZ., Zhang, X. and Grigoriev, IV., (2013). Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature. 499 (7457), 209-213

Lawson, T., Kramer, DM. and Raines, CA., (2012). Improving yield by exploiting mechanisms underlying natural variation of photosynthesis. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 23 (2), 215-220

(2012). Editorial. Journal of Experimental Botany. 63 (1), iv-iv

Raines, CA., (2011). Increasing Photosynthetic Carbon Assimilation in C3 Plants to Improve Crop Yield: Current and Future Strategies. Plant Physiology. 155 (1), 36-42

Howard, TP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Inter-species variation in the oligomeric states of the higher plant Calvin cycle enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoribulokinase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62 (11), 3799-3805

Howard, TP., Fryer, MJ., Singh, P., Metodiev, M., Lytovchenko, A., Obata, T., Fernie, AR., Kruger, NJ., Quick, WP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Antisense Suppression of the Small Chloroplast Protein CP12 in Tobacco Alters Carbon Partitioning and Severely Restricts Growth  . Plant Physiology. 157 (2), 620-631

Howard, TP., Upton, GJG., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2011). Antisense suppression of the small chloroplast protein CP12 in tobacco: A transcriptional viewpoint. Plant Signaling & Behavior. 6 (12), 2026-2030

Rosenthal, DM., Locke, AM., Khozaei, M., Raines, CA., Long, SP. and Ort, DR., (2011). Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2fumigation (FACE). BMC Plant Biology. 11 (1), 123-

Parry, MAJ., Reynolds, M., Salvucci, ME., Raines, C., Andralojc, PJ., Zhu, X-G., Price, GD., Condon, AG. and Furbank, RT., (2011). Raising yield potential of wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62 (2), 453-467

Lefebvre, SC., Harris, G., Webster, R., Leonardos, N., Geider, RJ., Raines, CA., Read, BA. and Garrido, JL., (2010). CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE Lhcf GENE FAMILY IN EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES TO LIGHT AND CO21. Journal of Phycology. 46 (1), 123-134

Groben, R., Kaloudas, D., Raines, CA., Offmann, B., Maberly, SC. and Gontero, B., (2010). Comparative sequence analysis of CP12, a small protein involved in the formation of a Calvin cycle complex in photosynthetic organisms. Photosynthesis Research. 103 (3), 183-194

Raines, C., Sahrawy Barragan, M. and Merida Berlanga, A., (2009). Preface. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60 (10), 2877-2877

Howard, TP., Metodiev, M., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2008). Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (10), 4056-4061

Lawson, T., Lefebvre, S., Baker, NR., Morison, JIL. and Raines, CA., (2008). Reductions in mesophyll and guard cell photosynthesis impact on the control of stomatal responses to light and CO2. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (13), 3609-3619

Singh, P., Kaloudas, D. and Raines, CA., (2008). Expression analysis of the Arabidopsis CP12 gene family suggests novel roles for these proteins in roots and floral tissues. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (14), 3975-3985

RAINES, CA., (2006). Transgenic approaches to manipulate the environmental responses of the C3 carbon fixation cycle. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (3), 331-339

DAVEY, PA., OLCER, H., ZAKHLENIUK, O., BERNACCHI, CJ., CALFAPIETRA, C., LONG, SP. and RAINES, CA., (2006). Can fast-growing plantation trees escape biochemical down-regulation of photosynthesis when grown throughout their complete production cycle in the open air under elevated carbon dioxide?. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (7), 1235-1244

LAWSON, T., BRYANT, B., LEFEBVRE, S., LLOYD, JC. and RAINES, CA., (2006). Decreased SBPase activity alters growth and development in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant, Cell and Environment. 29 (1), 48-58

Raines, C., (2006). Products of leaf primary carbon metabolism modulate the developmental programme determining plant morphology. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57 (9), 1857-1862

LIBERLOO, M., CALFAPIETRA, C., LUKAC, M., GODBOLD, D., LUO, Z-B., POLLE, A., HOOSBEEK, MR., KULL, O., MAREK, M., RAINES, C., RUBINO, M., TAYLOR, G., SCARASCIA-MUGNOZZA, G. and CEULEMANS, R., (2006). Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio-energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world. Global Change Biology. 12 (6), 1094-1106

Lefebvre, S., Lawson, T., Fryer, M., Zakhleniuk, OV., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2005). Increased Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Activity in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Stimulates Photosynthesis and Growth from an Early Stage in Development. Plant Physiology. 138 (1), 451-460

(2005). CORRECTION. Plant Physiology. 138 (2), 1174-1174

Lefebvre, S., Lawson, T., Zakhleniuk, OV., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2005). Increased sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase activity in transgenic tobacco plants stimulates photosynthesis and growth from an early stage in development. (vol 138, pg 451, 2005). PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 138 (2), 1174-1174

Raines, C., (2005). Preface to Redox Regulation of Leaf Metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany. 56 (416), iv-iv


von Caemmerer, S., Lawson, T., Oxborough, K., Baker, NR., Andrews, TJ. and Raines, CA., (2004). Stomatal conductance does not correlate with photosynthetic capacity in transgenic tobacco with reduced amounts of Rubisco. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55 (400), 1157-1166

Raines, CA., (2003). The Calvin cycle revisited. Photosynthesis Research. 75 (1), 1-10

Naidu, SL., Moose, SP., AL-Shoaibi, AK., Raines, CA. and Long, SP., (2003). Cold Tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus × giganteus: Adaptation in Amounts and Sequence of C4 Photosynthetic Enzymes. Plant Physiology. 132 (3), 1688-1697

Poolman, MG., Fell, DA. and Raines, CA., (2003). Elementary modes analysis of photosynthate metabolism in the chloroplast stroma. European Journal of Biochemistry. 270 (3), 430-439

Bernacchi, CJ., Calfapietra, C., Davey, PA., Wittig, VE., Scarascia‐Mugnozza, GE., Raines, CA. and Long, SP., (2003). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses of poplars to free‐air CO 2 enrichment (PopFACE) during the first growth cycle and immediately following coppice. New Phytologist. 159 (3), 609-621

Harrison, EP., Olcer, H., Lloyd, JC., Long, SP. and Raines, CA., (2001). Small decreases in SBPase cause a linear decline in the apparent RuBP regeneration rate, but do not affect Rubisco carboxylation capacity. Journal of Experimental Botany. 52 (362), 1779-1784

Zakhleniuk, OV., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (2001). pho3 : a phosphorus-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.. Planta. 212 (4), 529-534

Ölçer, H., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2001). Photosynthetic Capacity Is Differentially Affected by Reductions in Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Activity during Leaf Development in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. Plant Physiology. 125 (2), 982-989

Poolman, MG., Ölçer, H., Lloyd, JC., Raines, CA. and Fell, DA., (2001). Computer modelling and experimental evidence for two steady states in the photosynthetic Calvin cycle. European Journal of Biochemistry. 268 (10), 2810-2816

Raines, CA., Harrison, EP., Olcer, H. and Lloyd, JC., (2000). Investigating the role of the thiol-regulated enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the control of photosynthesis. Physiologia Plantarum. 110 (3), 303-308

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1999). New insights into the structure and function of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase; an important but neglected Calvin cycle enzyme. Journal of Experimental Botany. 50 (330), 1-8

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1999). New insights into the structure and function of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase; an important but neglected Calvin cycle enzyme (Review article). Journal of Experimental Botany. 50 (335), 881-881

Rogers, A., Fischer, BU., Bryant, J., Frehner, M., Blum, H., Raines, CA. and Long, SP., (1998). Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Elevated CO2under Low-Nitrogen Nutrition Is Affected by the Capacity for Assimilate Utilization. Perennial Ryegrass under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. Plant Physiology. 118 (2), 683-689

Dunford, RP., Catley, MA., Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1998). Purification of Active Chloroplast Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase Expressed inEscherichia coli. Protein Expression and Purification. 14 (1), 139-145

Harrison, EP., Willingham, NM., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1997). Reduced sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase levels in transgenic tobacco lead to decreased photosynthetic capacity and altered carbohydrate accumulation. Planta. 204 (1), 27-36

Barnes, JD., Bettarini, I., Polle, A., Slee, N., Raines, C., Miglietta, F., Raschi, A. and Fordham, M., (1997). The impact of elevated CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis in Agrostis canina L. ssp. monteluccii adapted to contrasting atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Oecologia. 110 (2), 169-178

JONES, PG., LLOYD, JC. and RAINES, CA., (1996). Glucose feeding of intact wheat plants represses the expression of a number of Calvin cycle genes. Plant, Cell and Environment. 19 (2), 231-236

Bringloe, DH., Rao, SK., Dyer, TA., Raines, CA. and Bradbeer, JW., (1996). Differential gene expression of chloroplast and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase in tobacco. Plant Molecular Biology. 30 (3), 637-640

Jones, PG., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (1995). Nucleotide Sequence of a Wheat Chloroplastic Phosphoglycerate Kinase Gene. Plant Physiology. 107 (4), 1483-1484

Willingham, NM., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1994). Molecular cloning of the Arabidopsis thaliana sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase gene and expression studies in wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 26 (4), 1191-1200

Miles, AJ., Potts, SC., Willingham, NM., Raines, CA. and Lloyd, JC., (1993). A light- and developmentally-regulated DNA-binding interaction is common to the upstream sequences of the wheat Calvin cycle bisphosphatase genes. Plant Molecular Biology. 22 (3), 507-516

Raines, CA., Horsnell, PR., Holder, C. and Lloyd, JC., (1992). Arabidopsis thaliana carbonic anhydrase: cDNA sequence and effect of CO2 on mRNA levels. Plant Molecular Biology. 20 (6), 1143-1148

RAINES, CA., LLOYD, JC., WILLINGHAM, NM., POTTS, S. and DYER, TA., (1992). cDNA and gene sequences of wheat chloroplast sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase reveal homology with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases. European Journal of Biochemistry. 205 (3), 1053-1059

Devos, KM., Atkinson, MD., Chinoy, CN., Lloyd, JC., Raines, CA., Dyer, TA. and Gale, MD., (1992). The coding sequence for sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase detects multiple homologues in wheat genomic DNA. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 85-85 (2-3), 133-135

Ko�mann, J., M�ller-R�ber, B., Dyer, TA., Raines, CA., Sonnewald, U. and Willmitzer, L., (1992). Cloning and expression analysis of the plastidic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase coding sequence from potato: circumstantial evidence for the import of hexoses into chloroplasts. Planta. 188 (1), 7-12

Lloyd, JC., Horsnell, PR., Dyer, TA. and Raines, CA., (1991). Structure and sequence of a wheat phosphoribulokinase gene. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 167-168

Horsnell, PR. and Raines, CA., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding chloroplast phosphoribulokinase fromArabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 183-184

Horsnell, PR. and Raines, CA., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase fromArabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 (1), 185-186

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1991). Molecular biology of the C3 photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Photosynthesis Research. 27 (1), 1-14

Meadows, JW., Hulford, A., Raines, CA. and Robinson, C., (1991). Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the precursor of the 33 kDa protein of the oxygen-evolving complex from wheat. Plant Molecular Biology. 16 (6), 1085-1087

Lloyd, JC., Raines, CA., John, UP. and Dyer, TAA., (1991). The chloroplast FBPase gene of wheat: structure and expression of the promoter in photosynthetic and meristematic cells of transgenic tobacco plants. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 225 (2), 209-216

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC., Chao, S., John, UP. and Murphy, GJP., (1991). A novel proline-rich protein from wheat. Plant Molecular Biology. 16 (4), 663-670

Chao, S., Raines, CA., Longstaff, M., Sharp, PJ., Gale, MD. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Chromosomal location and copy number in wheat and some of its close relatives of genes for enzymes involved in photosynthesis. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 218 (3), 423-430

Raines, CA., Longstaff, M., Lloyd, JC. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Complete coding sequence of wheat phosphoribulokinase: Developmental and light-dependent expression of the mRNA. Molecular and General Genetics. 220 (1), 43-48

Longstaff, M., Raines, CA., McMorrow, EM., Bradbeer, JW. and Dyer, TA., (1989). Wheat phospboglycerate kinase: evidence for recombination between toe genes for the chloroplastic and cytosolk enzymes. Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (16), 6569-6580

Raines, CA., Lloyd, JC., Longstaff, M., Bradley, D. and Dyer, T., (1988). Chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: the product of a mosaic gene. Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (16), 7931-7942

Raines, CA. and Hipkins, MF., (1988). Proteolytic enzymes stimulate both the ATP synthesis and hydrolysis functions of the chloroplast ATPase complex. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 933 (1), 172-178

Book chapters (1)

Raines, CA., Cavanagh, AP. and Simkin, AJ., (2022). Improving carbon fixation. In: Photosynthesis in Action. Elsevier. 175- 192. 9780128237816

Conferences (11)

Raines, CA., Howard, TP., Fernie, A. and Lloyd, JC., (2009). CP12 mediated redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism is essential for leaf development

Raines, C., (2008). Preface

Raines, C., (2006). Preface

Howard, T., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (2005). The role of Calvin cycle protein complexes in chloroplast metabolism

Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., De Angelis, P., Sabatti, M., Calfapietra, C., Miglietta, F., Raines, C., Godbold, D., Hoosbeek, M., Taylor, G., Polle, A. and Ceulemans, R., (2005). Global change and agro-forest ecosystems: Adaptation and mitigation in a FACE experiment on a poplar plantation

Raines, C. and Baker, N., (2004). Journal of Experimental Botany: Preface

LLOYD, JC., ZAKHLENIUK, OV. and RAINES, CA., (2001). Identification of mutants in phosphorus metabolism

Rogers, A., Bryant, JB., Raines, CA., Long, SP., Blum, H. and Frehner, M., (1995). Acclimation of photosynthesis to rising CO2 concentration in the field, is it determined by source/sink balance?

Harrison, EP., Lloyd, JC. and Raines, CA., (1995). Reduced SBPase levels in transgenic tobacco lead to decreased photosynthetic capacity

Vinnell, MP., Raines, CA. and Baker, NR., (1995). Response of thylakoid membrane proteins during shade-adaptation in Silene dioica.

Long, SP., Baker, NR. and Raines, CA., (1993). Analysing the responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration

Reports and Papers (3)

Ermakova, M., Lopez-Calcagno, PE., Furbank, RT., Raines, CA. and von Caemmerer, S., Increased sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase content in the C4 species Setaria viridis does not affect photosynthesis

López-Calcagno, PE., Brown, KL., Simkin, AJ., Fisk, SJ., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2020). Simultaneous stimulation of RuBP regeneration and electron transport increases productivity and water use efficiency under field conditions

Simkin, AJ., McAusland, L., Lawson, T. and Raines, CA., (2017). Over-expression of the RieskeFeS protein increases electron transport rates and yield in Arabidopsis

Grants and funding



European Commission

RIPE: Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency for Sustainable increases in Crop Yield

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


Stomata signalling pathways for increasing yield potential in wheat

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council


Developing hydroponic systems for vegetables sown at high density

European Commission


Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


Newton Fund: PhD Placement grant

British Council


PHOTOWHEAT: Exploiting variation in stomatal dynamics and ear photosynthesis to optimise wheat productivity.

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


15-IWYP Realising increased photosynthetic efficiency to increase wheat yield

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council

15-IWYP - Wider and faster: high-throughout phenotypic exploration of novel genetic variation for breeding high biomass and yield in wheat

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


Improving the Thermal Tolerance of Photosynthesis in Wheat

Rothamsted Research Ltd

RIPE: Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency for Sustainable Increases in Crop Yield

University of Illinois


Manipulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in wheat to improve yield

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council

Metabolic engineering to enhance photosynthesis based on empirical data and in silico modelling

Biotechnology & Biology Science Res.Council


Resource Utilization by Phytoplankton

Natural Environment Research Council


Response Of Emiliania Huxleyi To A High Co2 World

Natural Environment Research Council


RIPE: Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency for Sustainable increases in Crop Yield

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

RIPE: Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency for Sustainable increases in Crop Yield

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

+44 (0) 1206 873557/3310


5S.5.24 / 3SW.5.45, Colchester Campus