Dr Marina Lostal

Senior Lecturer
Essex Law School
Dr Marina Lostal
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873811

  • Location

    4SB.5.19, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    By appointment



My fields of expertise, in chronological order, are the protection of cultural property in armed conflict, international criminal law, reparations to victims, animal rights law and rights of nature. I am open to supervise in any of those areas.


  • PhD European University Institute, (2013)

  • LLM in Comparative, European and International Law European University Institute, (2010)

  • Master of Law University of Cambridge, (2009)

  • Licenciatura en Derecho Universidad de Zaragoza, (2008)

  • Master in Animal Law and Society Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, (2020)

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Heritage and Human Rights (AR959)

  • Law: War and Justice (LW219)

  • Animal Protection and Wildlife Law (LW229)

  • Final Year Research Project (LW304)

  • International Criminal Law 2: Advocacy and Litigation (LW809)

Previous supervision

Miracle Chinwenmeri Uche
Miracle Chinwenmeri Uche
Thesis title: Victim-Oriented Complementarity Is the Key: A Proposal for a Policy and Structural Change in the Interpretation and Application of the International Criminal Court’S Principle of Complementarity for the Achievement of Victim-Oriented Justice.
Degree subject: Law
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 7/3/2023


Journal articles (14)

Lostal, M., Shanker, A. and Calley, D., One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: The Search For ‘Rights’ in the Ecuador Animal Rights Bill. Derecho Animal - Animal and Legal Policy Studies. 2

Lostal, M., (2021). De-objectifying Animals: could they qualify as victims before the International Criminal Court?. Journal Of International Criminal Justice. 19 (3), 583-610

Lostal, M., (2021). Implementing Reparations in the Al Mahdi Case: A Story of Monumental Challenges in Timbuktu. Journal of International Criminal Justice. 19 (4), 831-853

Lostal, M., (2017). The Misplaced Emphasis on the Intangible Dimension of Cultural Heritage in the Al Mahdi Case at the ICC. Inter Gentes - The McGill Journal of International Law & Legal Pluralism. 1 (2), 45-58

Lostal, M., Hausler, K. and Bongard, P., (2017). Armed Non-State Actors and Cultural Heritage in Armed Conflict. International Journal of Cultural Property. 24 (4), 407-427

Lostal, M. and Gillett, M., (2017). Reflexiones Sobre El Caso Prlic Et Al. (Reflections on the Prlic Et Al. Case). En Letra: Derecho Penal. 1 (5), 1-12

Gillett, M. and Lostal, M., (2017). “Reflexiones Sobre el Caso Prlić et al.”. En Letra: Derecho Penal. 3 (5)

Lostal, M. and Cunliffe, E., (2016). Cultural heritage that heals: factoring in cultural heritage discourses in the Syrian peacebuilding process. Historic Environment: Policy and Practice. 7 (2-3), 248-259

Cunliffe, E., Muhesen, N. and Lostal, M., (2016). The Destruction of Cultural Property in the Syrian Conflict: Legal Implications and Obligations. International Journal of Cultural Property. 23 (1), 1-31

Lostal, M., (2015). Syria's world cultural heritage and individual criminal responsibility. International Review of Law. 2015 (1), 3-3

Lostal, M. and Vasconcelos Vilaça, G., (2015). The Bamiyazation of Cultural Heritage and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Challenges and Opportunities for China. The Chinese Journal of International Law. 3, 329-347

Lostal, M., (2013). The Role of Specific Discipline Principles in International Law: A Parallel Analysis between Environmental and Cultural Heritage Law. Nordic Journal of International Law. 82 (3), 391-415

Becerril, ML., (2012). THE MEANING AND PROTECTION OF ‘CULTURAL OBJECTS AND PLACES OF WORSHIP’ UNDER THE 1977 ADDITIONAL PROTOCOLS. Netherlands International Law Review. 59 (03), 455-472

Lostal, M., (2012). La Protección de Bienes Culturales en el Tribunal Penal Internacional para la Ex Yugoslavia (The Protection of Cultural Property under the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia). Revista Electrónica de Estudios Internacionales. 24, 1-25

Books (2)

Lostal, M., (2017). International Cultural Heritage Law in Armed Conflict Case-Studies of Syria, Libya, Mali, the Invasion of Iraq, and the Buddhas of Bamiyan. Cambridge University Press. 1316763897. 978-1107169210

Lostal, M., Hunter, E. and Utmelidze, I., (2017). Crimes against Humanity. Case Matrix Network

Book chapters (4)

Lostal, M., (2023). Reparations for Cultural Heritage Destruction at the ICC and the Limits of Human Rights. In: Arts and Human Rights A Multidisciplinary Approach to Contemporary Issues. Editors: Gantheret, F., Guibert, N. and Stolk, S., . Edward Elgar. 282- 305. 978 1 80220 814 6

Lostal, M., (2022). The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict and Occupation. In: International Conflict and Security Law: A Research Handbook. Editors: Sayapin, S., Atadjanov, R., Kadam, U., Kemp, G., Zambrana Tévar, N. and Quénivet, N., . T.M.C. Asser Press The Hague

Lostal, M., (2022). Reparation and Rehabilitation. In: Animals in the International Law of Armed Conflict. Editors: Peters, A., de Hemptinne, J. and Kolb, R., . Cambridge University Press. 334- 347. 1316512045. 9781316512043

Lostal, M., (2020). Islamic State and the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property. In: The International Criminal Responsibility of War's Funders and Profiteers. Editors: Jørgensen, NHB., . Cambridge University Press. 122- 147. 978-1-108-48361-2

Reports and Papers (4)

Lostal, M., Comment on the ICC - OTP Environmental Crimes Policy, “The Environment and the ICC Legal Framework concerning Victims” (16 March 2024)

Lostal, M., Hausler, K. and Bongard, P., (2018). Culture under Fire: Armed Non-State Actors and Cultural Heritage in Wartime

Lostal, M., (2017). Expert Report – Reparations Phase The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi (International Criminal Court) ICC-01/12-01/15-214-AnxII-Red2 (3 May 2017)

Lostal, M. and Cunliffe, E., (2016). The Aftermath of Destruction of Cultural Heritage: Factoring In Cultural Rights in Post-Conflict Recovery Processes

Other (5)

Lostal, M., (2021).The Ntaganda Reparations Order: a marked step towards a victim-centred reparations legal framework at the ICC, EJIL Talk!

Lostal, M., Hausler, K. and Bongard, P., (2019).20 Years of the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict: Have All the Gaps Been Filled?,EJIL Talk!

Lostal, M., (2016).The ICC convicts Al Mahdi for the destruction of cultural heritage in Mali

Lostal, M., (2016).Prosecutor v. Al Mahdi: A Positive New Direction for the ICC?

Lostal, M., (2015).ICC opens a case for the destruction of cultural heritage in Mali,Global Policy Forum

Grants and funding


Crimes against cultural heritage in the Colombian conflict context

Instituto Colombo-Alem�n para la Paz (CAPAZ)


Legal, Human Rights, Cultural and Environmental aspects of founding a Biocultural Indigenous University in the Andean Amazon of Colombia

Arts and Humanities Research Council

+44 (0) 1206 873811


4SB.5.19, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

By appointment