Jose Manuel joined Essex Business School in 2015. He holds a PhD from the University of Granada (Spain). Jose is also a Honorary Senior Lecturer at University of St Andrews and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA). Previously, he has held visiting teaching/research positions at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, University of St Andrews, University of Alicante, University of Illinois, Florida State University and the Institute of European Finance (Bangor University, UK). His academic career combines both teaching and research in economics, banking and finance. He has been researcher for the Spanish Savings Banks Foundation and has also participated in projects related to the banking industry for the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, the Andalusian Autonomous Government and several financial institutions. In recent years, Jose Manuel has carried out various empirical studies in retail payments and consumer finances. He has published articles in journals such as the European Journal of Finance, Journal of Banking & Finance, Journal of Financial Services Research, Review of Network Economics, Social Science and Medicine, British Accounting Review.