Dr Nick Aldred

Senior Lecturer
School of Life Sciences
Dr Nick Aldred



My research interests span a number of areas of applied marine biology, particularly biological materials used by marine invertebrates for specialised purposes, marine larval ecology and larval settlement behaviour. Much of my work has involved the study of biological adhesives to inspire new synthetic glues and assist in the development of marine antifouling coatings, as well as the development of novel biological or bio-inspired coatings. I collaborate widely with industry and have received funding for my research from industry, charities and defence organisations. I am a founding member of the European Network of Bioadhesion Expertise and an Editorial Board member of Marine Biotechnology and the Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. I am always happy to discuss projects, placements and collaborations that relate to my areas of interest.

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Introduction to Global Sustainability Challenges (BS106)

  • Animal Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour (BS113)

  • Transferable Skills in Life Sciences (BS143)

  • Professional skills for Ecological and Marine Scientists (BS257)

  • Addressing Global Sustainability Challenges (BS259)

  • Marine Resources (BS705)

  • Professional Skills in Tropical Marine Biology (BS708)

  • Research Project in Life Sciences (BS832)


Journal articles (60)

Whitworth, P., Aldred, N., Reynolds, KJ., Plummer, J., Duke, PW. and Clare, AS., (2022). Importance of Duration, Duty-Cycling and Thresholds for the Implementation of Ultraviolet C in Marine Biofouling Control. Frontiers in Marine Science. 8

Karthäuser, JF., Koc, J., Schönemann, E., Wanka, R., Aldred, N., Clare, AS., Rosenhahn, A. and Laschewsky, A., (2022). Optimizing Fouling Resistance of Poly(Sulfabetaine)s through Backbone and Charge Separation. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 9 (33)

Benda, J., Narikiyo, H., Stafslien, SJ., VanderWal, LJ., Finlay, JA., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Webster, DC., (2022). Studying the Effect of Pre-Polymer Composition and Incorporation of Surface-Modifying Amphiphilic Additives on the Fouling-Release Performance of Amphiphilic Siloxane-Polyurethane Coatings. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 14 (32), 37229-37247

Davey, PA., Power, AM., Santos, R., Bertemes, P., Ladurner, P., Palmowski, P., Clarke, J., Flammang, P., Lengerer, B., Hennebert, E., Rothbächer, U., Pjeta, R., Wunderer, J., Zurovec, M. and Aldred, N., (2021). Omics‐based molecular analyses of adhesion by aquatic invertebrates. Biological Reviews. 96 (3), 1051-1075

Gnanasampanthan, T., Beyer, CD., Yu, W., Karthäuser, JF., Wanka, R., Spöllmann, S., Becker, H-W., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Rosenhahn, A., (2021). Effect of Multilayer Termination on Nonspecific Protein Adsorption and Antifouling Activity of Alginate-Based Layer-by-Layer Coatings. Langmuir. 37 (19), 5950-5963

Leonardi, A., Zhang, AC., Düzen, N., Aldred, N., Finlay, JA., Clarke, JL., Clare, AS., Segalman, RA. and Ober, CK., (2021). Amphiphilic Nitroxide-Bearing Siloxane-Based Block Copolymer Coatings for Enhanced Marine Fouling Release. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 13 (24), 28790-28801

Cleverley, RM., Webb, DS., Middlemiss, S., Duke, PW., Clare, AS., Okano, K., Harwood, CR. and Aldred, N., (2021). In Vitro Oxidative Crosslinking of Recombinant Barnacle Cyprid Cement Gland Proteins. Marine Biotechnology. 23 (6), 928-942

Schönemann, E., Koc, J., Aldred, N., Clare, AS., Laschewsky, A., Rosenhahn, A. and Wischerhoff, E., (2020). Synthesis of Novel Sulfobetaine Polymers with Differing Dipole Orientations in Their Side Chains, and Their Effects on the Antifouling Properties. Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 41 (1), e1900447-

Clarke, JL., Davey, PA. and Aldred, N., (2020). Sea anemones (Exaiptasia pallida) use a secreted adhesive and complex pedal disc morphology for surface attachment. BMC Zoology. 5 (1)

Aldred, N., Chan, VBS., Emami, K., Okano, K., Clare, AS. and Mount, AS., (2020). Chitin is a functional component of the larval adhesive of barnacles. Communications Biology. 3 (1), 31-

Koc, J., Schönemann, E., Wanka, R., Aldred, N., Clare, AS., Gardner, H., Swain, GW., Hunsucker, K., Laschewsky, A. and Rosenhahn, A., (2020). Effects of crosslink density in zwitterionic hydrogel coatings on their antifouling performance and susceptibility to silt uptake. Biofouling. 36 (6), 646-659

Wanka, R., Koc, J., Clarke, J., Hunsucker, KZ., Swain, GW., Aldred, N., Finlay, JA., Clare, AS. and Rosenhahn, A., (2020). Sol–Gel-Based Hybrid Materials as Antifouling and Fouling-Release Coatings for Marine Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 12 (47), 53286-53296

Raine, JJ., Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2020). Anatomy and Ultrastructure of the Cyprid Temporary Adhesive System in Two Species of Acorn Barnacle. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 8 (12), 968-968

Aldred, N., (2019). Transdisciplinary approaches to the study of adhesion and adhesives in biological systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 374 (1784), 20190191-20190191

Aldred, N. and Nelson, A., (2019). Microbiome acquisition during larval settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Biology Letters. 15 (6), 20180763-20180763

Wanka, R., Aldred, N., Finlay, JA., Amuthalingam, A., Clarke, JL., Clare, AS. and Rosenhahn, A., (2019). Antifouling Properties of Dendritic Polyglycerols against Marine Macrofouling Organisms. Langmuir. 35 (50), 16568-16575

Kardela, JH., Millichamp, IS., Ferguson, J., Parry, AL., Reynolds, KJ., Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2019). Nonfreezable Water and Polymer Swelling Control the Marine Antifouling Performance of Polymers with Limited Hydrophilic Content. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 11 (33), 29477-29489

Davey, PA., Rodrigues, M., Clarke, JL. and Aldred, N., (2019). Transcriptional characterisation of the Exaiptasia pallida pedal disc. BMC Genomics. 20 (1), 581-

Aldred, N., Gatley-Montross, CM., Lang, M., Detty, MR. and Clare, AS., (2019). Correlative assays of barnacle cyprid behaviour for the laboratory evaluation of antifouling coatings: a study of surface energy components. Biofouling. 35 (2), 159-172

Aldred, N., Alsaab, A. and Clare, AS., (2018). Quantitative analysis of the complete larval settlement process confirms Crisp's model of surface selectivity by barnacles. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 285 (1872), 20171957-20171957

Franco, SC., Aldred, N., Cruz, T. and Clare, AS., (2017). Effects of culture conditions on larval growth and survival of stalked barnacles ( Pollicipes pollicipes ). Aquaculture Research. 48 (6), 2920-2933

Gatley-Montross, CM., Finlay, JA., Aldred, N., Cassady, H., Destino, JF., Orihuela, B., Hickner, MA., Clare, AS., Rittschof, D., Holm, ER. and Detty, MR., (2017). Multivariate analysis of attachment of biofouling organisms in response to material surface characteristics. Biointerphases. 12 (5), 051003-

Alsaab, A., Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2017). Automated tracking and classification of the settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 14 (128), 20160957-20160957

Spiga, I., Aldred, N. and Caldwell, GS., (2017). Anthropogenic noise compromises the anti-predator behaviour of the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Marine Pollution Bulletin. 122 (1-2), 297-305

Bauer, S., Alles, M., Arpa-Sancet, MP., Ralston, E., Swain, GW., Aldred, N., Clare, AS., Finlay, JA., Callow, ME., Callow, JA. and Rosenhahn, A., (2016). Resistance of Amphiphilic Polysaccharides against Marine Fouling Organisms. Biomacromolecules. 17 (3), 897-904

Senkbeil, T., Mohamed, T., Simon, R., Batchelor, D., Di Fino, A., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Rosenhahn, A., (2016). In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 408 (5), 1487-1496

Maleshlijski, S., Sendra, GH., Aldred, N., Clare, AS., Liedberg, B., Grunze, M., Ederth, T. and Rosenhahn, A., (2016). Imaging SPR combined with stereoscopic 3D tracking to study barnacle cyprid–surface interactions. Surface Science. 643, 172-177

Franco, SC., Aldred, N., Cruz, T. and Clare, AS., (2016). Modulation of gregarious settlement of the stalked barnacle, <em>Pollicipes pollicipes</em>: a laboratory study. Scientia Marina. 80 (2), 217-228

Petrone, L., Aldred, N., Emami, K., Enander, K., Ederth, T. and Clare, AS., (2015). Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex. Interface Focus. 5 (1), 20140047-20140047

Maleschlijski, S., Bauer, S., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Rosenhahn, A., (2015). Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 12 (102), 20141104-20141104

C. Franco, S., Aldred, N., Sykes, AV., Cruz, T. and Clare, AS., (2015). The effects of rearing temperature on reproductive conditioning of stalked barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes). Aquaculture. 448, 410-417

Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2014). Mini-review: Impact and dynamics of surface fouling by solitary and compound ascidians. Biofouling. 30 (3), 259-270

Gohad, NV., Aldred, N., Hartshorn, CM., Jong Lee, Y., Cicerone, MT., Orihuela, B., Clare, AS., Rittschof, D. and Mount, AS., (2014). Synergistic roles for lipids and proteins in the permanent adhesive of barnacle larvae. Nature Communications. 5 (1), 4414-

Di Fino, A., Petrone, L., Aldred, N., Ederth, T., Liedberg, B. and Clare, AS., (2014). Correlation between surface chemistry and settlement behaviour in barnacle cyprids (Balanus improvisus). Biofouling. 30 (2), 143-152

Aldred, N., Høeg, JT., Maruzzo, D. and Clare, AS., (2013). Analysis of the Behaviours Mediating Barnacle Cyprid Reversible Adhesion. PLoS ONE. 8 (7), e68085-e68085

Aldred, N., Gohad, NV., Petrone, L., Orihuela, B., Liedberg, B., Ederth, T., Mount, A., Rittschof, D. and Clare, T., (2013). Confocal microscopy-based goniometry of barnacle cyprid permanent adhesive. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216 (11), 1969-1972

Schön, P., Kutnyanszky, E., ten Donkelaar, B., Santonicola, MG., Tecim, T., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Vancso, GJ., (2013). Probing biofouling resistant polymer brush surfaces by atomic force microscopy based force spectroscopy. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 102, 923-930

Maruzzo, D., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Høeg, JT., (2012). Metamorphosis in the Cirripede Crustacean Balanus amphitrite. PLoS ONE. 7 (5), e37408-e37408

Maleschlijski, S., Sendra, GH., Di Fino, A., Leal-Taixé, L., Thome, I., Terfort, A., Aldred, N., Grunze, M., Clare, AS., Rosenhahn, B. and Rosenhahn, A., (2012). Three Dimensional Tracking of Exploratory Behavior of Barnacle Cyprids Using Stereoscopy. Biointerphases. 7 (1), 1-9

Gohad, NV., Aldred, N., Orihuela, B., Clare, AS., Rittschof, D. and Mount, AS., (2012). Observations on the settlement and cementation of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cyprid larvae after artificial exposure to noradrenaline and the locations of adrenergic-like receptors. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 416-417, 153-161

Imbesi, PM., Finlay, JA., Aldred, N., Eller, MJ., Felder, SE., Pollack, KA., Lonnecker, AT., Raymond, JE., Mackay, ME., Schweikert, EA., Clare, AS., Callow, JA., Callow, ME. and Wooley, KL., (2012). Targeted surface nanocomplexity: two-dimensional control over the composition, physical properties and anti-biofouling performance of hyperbranched fluoropolymer–poly(ethylene glycol) amphiphilic crosslinked networks. Polymer Chemistry. 3 (11), 3121-3121

Bacchetti De Gregoris, T., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Burgess, JG., (2011). Improvement of phylum- and class-specific primers for real-time PCR quantification of bacterial taxa. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 86 (3), 351-356

Aldred, N., Ekblad, T., Andersson, O., Liedberg, B. and Clare, AS., (2011). Real-Time Quantification of Microscale Bioadhesion Events In situ Using Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance (iSPR). ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 3 (6), 2085-2091

Maruzzo, D., Conlan, S., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Høeg, JT., (2011). Video observation of surface exploration in cyprids ofBalanus amphitrite: the movements of antennular sensory setae. Biofouling. 27 (2), 225-239

Petrone, L., Di Fino, A., Aldred, N., Sukkaew, P., Ederth, T., Clare, AS. and Liedberg, B., (2011). Effects of surface charge and Gibbs surface energy on the settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids (Balanus amphitrite). Biofouling. 27 (9), 1043-1055

Phang, IY., Aldred, N., Ling, XY., Huskens, J., Clare, AS. and Vancso, GJ., (2010). Atomic force microscopy of the morphology and mechanical behaviour of barnacle cyprid footprint proteins at the nanoscale. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 7 (43), 285-296

Aldred, N., Scardino, A., Cavaco, A., de Nys, R. and Clare, AS., (2010). Attachment strength is a key factor in the selection of surfaces by barnacle cyprids (Balanus amphitrite) during settlement. Biofouling. 26 (3), 287-299

Aldred, N., Li, G., Gao, Y., Clare, AS. and Jiang, S., (2010). Modulation of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite Darwin) cyprid settlement behavior by sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine methacrylate polymer coatings. Biofouling. 26 (6), 673-683

Andersson, O., Ekblad, T., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Liedberg, B., (2009). Novel application of imaging surface plasmon resonance for in situ studies of the surface exploration of marine organisms. Biointerphases. 4 (4), 65-68

Phang, IY., Aldred, N., Ling, XY., Tomczak, N., Huskens, J., Clare, AS. and Vancso, GJ., (2009). Chemistry-Specific Interfacial Forces Between Barnacle (Semibalanus Balanoides) Cyprid Footprint Proteins and Chemically Functionalised AFM Tips. The Journal of Adhesion. 85 (9), 616-630

Schmidt, M., Cavaco, A., Gierlinger, N., Aldred, N., Fratzl, P., Grunze, M. and Clare, AS., (2009). In SituImaging of Barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) Cyprid Cement Using Confocal Raman Microscopy. The Journal of Adhesion. 85 (2-3), 139-151

Phang, IY., Aldred, N., Clare, AS. and Vancso, GJ., (2008). Towards a nanomechanical basis for temporary adhesion in barnacle cyprids ( Semibalanus balanoides ). Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 5 (21), 397-402

Conlan, SL., Mutton, RJ., Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2008). Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles. Biofouling. 24 (6), 471-481

Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2008). The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings. Biofouling. 24 (5), 351-363

Aldred, N., Phang, IY., Conlan, SL., Clare, AS. and Vancso, GJ., (2008). The effects of a serine protease, Alcalase®, on the adhesives of barnacle cyprids (Balanus amphitrite). Biofouling. 24 (2), 97-107

Aldred, N., Wills, T., Williams, DN. and Clare, AS., (2007). Tensile and dynamic mechanical analysis of the distal portion of mussel (Mytilus edulis) byssal threads. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 4 (17), 1159-1167

Schumacher, JF., Aldred, N., Callow, ME., Finlay, JA., Callow, JA., Clare, AS. and Brennan, AB., (2007). Species-specific engineered antifouling topographies: correlations between the settlement of algal zoospores and barnacle cyprids. Biofouling. 23 (5), 307-317

Aldred, N., Ista, LK., Callow, ME., Callow, JA., Lopez, GP. and Clare, AS., (2006). Mussel ( Mytilus edulis ) byssus deposition in response to variations in surface wettability. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 3 (6), 37-43

Phang ∗, IY., Aldred ∗, N., Clare, AS., Callow, JA. and Vancso, GJ., (2006). Anin situstudy of the nanomechanical properties of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cyprid cement using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biofouling. 22 (4), 245-250

Hellio, C., Tsoukatou, M., Maréchal, J-P., Aldred, N., Beaupoil, C., Clare, AS., Vagias, C. and Roussis, V., (2005). Inhibitory Effects of Mediterranean Sponge Extracts and Metabolites on Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Marine Biotechnology. 7 (4), 297-305

Book chapters (3)

Aldred, N. and Petrone, L., (2016). Progress in the Study of Adhesion by Marine Invertebrate Larvae. In: Biological Adhesives. Springer International Publishing. 87- 105. 9783319460819

Clare, AS. and Aldred, N., (2009). Surface colonisation by marine organisms and its impact on antifouling research. In: Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies. Elsevier. 46- 79. 9781845693862

Aldred, N. and Clare, AS., (2009). Mechanisms and Principles Underlying Temporary Adhesion, Surface Exploration and Settlement Site Selection by Barnacle Cyprids: A Short Review. In: Functional Surfaces in Biology. Springer Netherlands. 43- 65. 9781402066948

Conferences (1)


Grants and funding


ECO-COATING � Engineering Control of Organic Coatings on Autonomous Navy Gliders

US Department of Defense: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

An In Vitro Model For Studies of Barnacle Cyprid Cementation

Office of Naval Research


Going back to basics: reverse engineering the adhesive of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida

Leverhulme Trust

Engineered Biofilms with Modular Functionality for Persistent and Survivable Naval Platforms

Office of Naval Research



Colchester Campus

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