People

Dr Efstathios (Stathis) Giotis

Lecturer
School of Life Sciences
Dr Efstathios (Stathis) Giotis

Profile

Biography

Efstathios (Stathis) Giotis graduated from the School of veterinary medicine (Aristotle University, Greece) in 2001, received his MSc in biotechnology in 2002 and PhD in molecular microbiology in 2006 from the Ulster and Illinois State Universities. Since 2009, he worked at the Roslin Institute, the Royal Veterinary College London, the University of Copenhagen in the field of pathogen-host interactions. Common denominators of his research have been the focus on the interface of human-animal health and the use of transcriptomics technologies to answer scientific questions. Since joining Imperial College London in 2012, his research has moved to focus on the host cell-entry and transmission of zoonotic avian and bat-borne viruses such as avian/bat influenza A viruses, using big data techniques and bioinformatics. He joined the University of Essex in 2020 in order to establish his own group with a primary focus on SARS-CoV-2. He remains affiliated with Imperial College London as an honorary senior research fellow.

Qualifications

  • PhD in Molecular Microbiology Ulster & Illinois State Universities, (2006)

  • MSc in Biotechnology Ulster University, (2002)

  • Doctor in Veterinary Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, (2001)

Appointments

University of Essex

  • Lecturer in Virology, University of Essex (1/7/2020 - present)

Other academic

  • Honorary Senior Research Fellow in Virology, Imperial College London (1/7/2020 - present)

  • Research Fellow in Molecular Virology, Imperial College London (22/1/2012 - 30/6/2020)

  • Research Fellow in Bacteriology, Royal Veerinary College (18/1/2009 - 15/1/2012)

  • Research Associate in Immunogenetics, The Roslin Institute (1/6/2006 - 30/11/2007)

  • Research Assistant in Bacteriology, Illinois State University (1/9/2005 - 2/1/2006)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Tropism determinants of emerging flaviviruses

The recent emergence and re-emergence of flavivirus (FV) infections (Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and others) is a cause for international concern. With no therapeutic treatments and vaccines available for most FV, understanding the tropism of (re)emerging FV and the mechanisms of host-virus interactions leading to disease is imperative. Tropism: All FV are enveloped +-strand RNA viruses with a unique open reading frame coding for both structural and non structural genes. Despite their striking genomic and structural similarities, FV display diverse tropisms resulting in disparate clinical presentations. The FV cause diseases ranging from mild or sub-clinical infections to lethal hemorrhagic fever (haemorragic FV; H-FV) or encephalitis (neurotropic FV; N-FV). Mosquito-borne FV (MBFV) and tick-borne FV (TBFV) spread between vertebrate (mammals and birds) and invertebrate (mosquitoes and ticks) hosts, whereas insect-specific FV (ISFV) replicate specifically in mosquitoes and no-known-vector FV (NKV) have only been found in rodents and bats respectively. Receptors: FV infection occurs via an interaction between the conserved viral envelope (E) protein and host attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface such as glycosaminoglycans and subsequently via binding of virions with primary receptor(s) that direct them to the endocytic pathway. The search for cellular receptors that mediate FV entry is an active area of investigation. Amongst the entry receptors postulated to be involved in FV entry, the best characterized to date include αvβ3 integrins, C-type lectin receptors (CLR), phosphatidylserine receptors TIM (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain) and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM). Rationale: The expression of these receptors cannot account for the tropism of FV, as several cellular models devoid of these molecules are permissive to FV infection. This suggests that other receptors exist and remain to be discovered. Like all viruses, the tropism of FV is only partially determined by the host receptor and also relies on host cell factors and physiological processes for key steps of their replication cycle. Detailed functional understanding of these processes could provide further insights into viral evolution, fitness, and vaccine design. Our goal is to identify entry and host factors that determine or contribute to FV tropism.

Open to supervise

The asymptomatic persistence of zoonotic viruses in bats

The remarkable ability of bats to coexist with a wide range of potentially zoonotic viruses such as the influenza A-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11 (BatIV) is not yet understood. Influenza A is a paradigm of a virus capable of interspecies and interclass transmission. I (and others; refs) recently demonstrated that the human MHC-II HLA-DR receptor complex can confer susceptibility to BatIVs upon non-susceptible cells, suggesting that these viruses possess zoonotic potential. I now want to investigate further the ecology and transmission of these viruses and ultimately understand mechanistically how bats carry these and other viruses and yet remain asymptomatic.

Open to supervise

Current research

Identify HBV-mediated gene expression changes of induced pluripotential stem cell-derived hepatocytes with RNA-seq

Comparative molecular virological analysis of Caribbean and S. American Vs Pacific Zika viruses

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Microbiology (BS104)

  • Transferable Skills in Life Sciences (BS143)

  • Biomedical Science: Practice and Employability (BS214)

  • Immunity in Health and Disease (BS223)

  • Medical Microbiology (BS235)

  • Issues in Biomolecular Science (BS304)

  • Issues in Biomedical Science (BS306)

  • Research Project in Life Sciences (BS832)

Publications

Journal articles (35)

Oliveira, M., Rodrigues, DR., Guillory, V., Kut, E., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA., Guabiraba, R., Bryant, CE. and Ferguson, BJ., (2021). Chicken cGAS Senses Fowlpox Virus Infection and Regulates Macrophage Effector Functions. Frontiers in Immunology. 11, 613079-

Giotis, ES., Matthews, DA. and Smith, J., (2021). Editorial: Host Innate Immune Responses to Infection by Avian- and Bat-Borne Viruses. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 11, 651289-

Asfor, AS., Nazki, S., Reddy, VRAP., Campbell, E., Dulwich, KL., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., (2021). Transcriptomic Analysis of Inbred Chicken Lines Reveals Infectious Bursal Disease Severity Is Associated with Greater Bursal Inflammation In Vivo and More Rapid Induction of Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Primary Bursal Cells Stimulated Ex Vivo. Viruses. 13 (5), 933-933

Leach, DA., Mohr, A., Zwacka, R., Giottis, S., Yates, L., Lloyd, C., Brooke, GN. and Bevan, CL., (2021). Antiandrogens Target TMPRSS2 and Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Virus Entry in Lung Cells. Journal of the Endocrine Society. 5 (S1), A60-A61

Leach, DA., Mohr, A., Giotis, ES., Cil, E., Isac, AM., Yates, LL., Barclay, WS., Zwacka, RM., Bevan, CL. and Brooke, GN., (2021). The antiandrogen enzalutamide downregulates TMPRSS2 and reduces cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells. Nature Communications. 12 (1), 4068-

Dulwich, KL., Asfor, A., Gray, A., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., (2020). The Stronger Downregulation of in vitro and in vivo Innate Antiviral Responses by a Very Virulent Strain of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), Compared to a Classical Strain, Is Mediated, in Part, by the VP4 Protein. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 10, 315-

Liu, PJ., Harris, JM., Marchi, E., D’Arienzo, V., Michler, T., Wing, PAC., Magri, A., Ortega-Prieto, AM., van de Klundert, M., Wettengel, J., Durantel, D., Dorner, M., Klenerman, P., Protzer, U., Giotis, ES. and McKeating, JA., (2020). Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients is not observed in state-of-the-art in vitro and mouse infection models. Scientific Reports. 10 (1), 14101-

Giotis, ES., (2020). Inferring the Urban Transmission Potential of Bat Influenza Viruses. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 10, 264-

Giotis, ES., Laidlaw, SM., Bidgood, SR., Albrecht, D., Burden, JJ., Robey, RC., Mercer, J. and Skinner, MA., (2020). Modulation of Early Host Innate Immune Response by an Avipox Vaccine Virus’ Lateral Body Protein. Biomedicines. 8 (12), 634-634

Liu, PJ., Harris, JM., Marchi, E., D’Arienzo, V., Michler, T., Wing, PAC., Magri, A., Ortega-Prieto, AM., van de Klundert, M., Wettengel, J., Durantel, D., Dorner, M., Klenerman, P., Protzer, U., Giotis, ES. and McKeating, JA., (2020). Author Correction: Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients is not observed in state-of-the-art in vitro and mouse infection models. Scientific Reports. 10 (1), 19332-

Giotis, ES., Laidlaw, SM., Bidgood, SR., Albrecht, D., Burden, JJ., Robey, RC., Mercer, J. and Skinner, MA., (2020). Modulation of early host innate immune response by a Fowlpox virus (FWPV) lateral body protein

Giotis, ES., Montillet, G., Pain, B. and Skinner, MA., (2019). Chicken Embryonic-Stem Cells Are Permissive to Poxvirus Recombinant Vaccine Vectors.. Genes. 10 (3), 237-237

Mariatulqabtiah, AR., Majid, NN., Giotis, ES., Omar, AR. and Skinner, MA., (2019). Inoculation of fowlpox viruses coexpressing avian influenza H5 and chicken IL-15 cytokine gene stimulates diverse host immune responses. Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. 27 (1), 84-94

Giotis, ES., Carnell, G., Young, EF., Ghanny, S., Soteropoulos, P., Wang, L-F., Barclay, WS., Skinner, MA. and Temperton, N., (2019). Entry of the bat influenza H17N10 virus into mammalian cells is enabled by the MHC class II HLA-DR receptor.. Nature Microbiology. 4 (12), 2035-2038

Giotis, ES. and Skinner, MA., (2019). Spotlight on avian pathology: fowlpox virus. Avian Pathology. 48 (2), 87-90

Giotis, ES., Scott, A., Rothwell, L., Hu, T., Talbot, R., Todd, D., Burt, DW., Glass, EJ. and Kaiser, P., (2018). Chicken anaemia virus evades host immune responses in transformed lymphocytes. Journal of General Virology. 99 (3), 321-327

Tierney, M., Gallagher, AM., Giotis, ES. and Pentieva, K., (2017). An Online Survey on Consumer Knowledge and Understanding of Added Sugars.. Nutrients. 9 (1), 37-37

Dulwich, KL., Giotis, ES., Gray, A., Nair, V., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., (2017). Differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).. The Journal of general virology. 98 (12), 2918-2930

Giotis, ES., Ross, CS., Robey, RC., Nohturfft, A., Goodbourn, S. and Skinner, MA., (2017). Constitutively elevated levels of SOCS1 suppress innate responses in DF-1 immortalised chicken fibroblast cells.. Scientific Reports. 7 (1), 17485-

Giotis, ES., Robey, RC., Skinner, NG., Tomlinson, CD., Goodbourn, S. and Skinner, MA., (2016). Chicken interferome: avian interferon-stimulated genes identified by microarray and RNA-seq of primary chick embryo fibroblasts treated with a chicken type I interferon (IFN-α).. Veterinary Research. 47 (1), 75-

Long, JS., Giotis, ES., Moncorgé, O., Frise, R., Mistry, B., James, J., Morisson, M., Iqbal, M., Vignal, A., Skinner, MA. and Barclay, WS., (2016). Species difference in ANP32A underlies influenza A virus polymerase host restriction.. Nature. 529 (7584), 101-104

Giotis, ES., Rothwell, L., Scott, A., Hu, T., Talbot, R., Todd, D., Burt, DW., Glass, EJ. and Kaiser, P., (2015). Transcriptomic Profiling of Virus-Host Cell Interactions following Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) Infection in an In Vivo Model.. PLoS One. 10 (8), e0134866-e0134866

Kennedy, TG., Giotis, ES. and McKevitt, AI., (2014). Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant. Meat Science. 97 (4), 486-489

Wheatley, P., Giotis, ES. and McKevitt, AI., (2014). Effects of slaughtering operations on carcass contamination in an Irish pork production plant.. Irish Veterinary Journal. 67 (1), 1-

Laidlaw, SM., Robey, R., Davies, M., Giotis, ES., Ross, C., Buttigieg, K., Goodbourn, S. and Skinner, MA., (2013). Genetic Screen of a Mutant Poxvirus Library Identifies an Ankyrin Repeat Protein Involved in Blocking Induction of Avian Type I Interferon. Journal of Virology. 87 (9), 5041-5052

Giotis, ES., Loeffler, A., Knight-Jones, T. and Lloyd, DH., (2012). Development of a skin colonization model in gnotobiotic piglets for the study of the microbial ecology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 113 (4), 992-1000

Carson, M., Meredith, AL., Shaw, DJ., Giotis, ES., Lloyd, DH. and Loeffler, A., (2012). Foxes As a Potential Wildlife Reservoir formecA-Positive Staphylococci. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 12 (7), 583-587

Porphyre, T., Giotis, ES., Lloyd, DH. and Stärk, KDC., (2012). A metapopulation model to assess the capacity of spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in humans.. PLoS One. 7 (10), e47504-e47504

Giotis, ES., Loeffler, A., Lindsay, JA. and Lloyd, DH., (2011). Reduced Sensitivity of Oxacillin-Screening Agar for Detection of MRSA ST398 from Colonized Pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 49 (8), 3103-3104

Giotis, ES., Muthaiyan, A., Natesan, S., Wilkinson, BJ., Blair, IS. and McDowell, DA., (2010). Transcriptome Analysis of Alkali Shock and Alkali Adaptation inListeria monocytogenes10403S. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 7 (10), 1147-1157

Singh, VK., Hattangady, DS., Giotis, ES., Singh, AK., Chamberlain, NR., Stuart, MK. and Wilkinson, BJ., (2008). Insertional Inactivation of Branched-Chain α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase in Staphylococcus aureus Leads to Decreased Branched-Chain Membrane Fatty Acid Content and Increased Susceptibility to Certain Stresses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (19), 5882-5890

GIOTIS, ES., JULOTOK, M., WILKINSON, BJ., BLAIR, IS. and MCDOWELL, DA., (2008). Role of Sigma B Factor in the Alkaline Tolerance Response of Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and Cross-Protection against Subsequent Ethanol and Osmotic Stress. Journal of Food Protection. 71 (7), 1481-1485

Giotis, ES., Muthaiyan, A., Blair, IS., Wilkinson, BJ. and McDowell, DA., (2008). Genomic and proteomic analysis of the Alkali-Tolerance Response (AlTR) in Listeria monocytogenes 10403S.. BMC Microbiology. 8 (1), 102-102

Giotis, ES., Blair, IS. and McDowell, DA., (2007). Morphological changes in Listeria monocytogenes subjected to sublethal alkaline stress. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 120 (3), 250-258

Giotis, ES., McDowell, DA., Blair, IS. and Wilkinson, BJ., (2007). Role of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in pH Stress Tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (3), 997-1001

Conferences (6)

Herrera, C., Gallagher, A., Ferguson, D., Fen, Y., Stein, M., Ham, C., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA., Kempster, S., Hall, J., Giles, E., Almond, N., Diez, J. and Berry, N., (2021). Mucosal responses to HIV-1 co-infection with an emerging pathogen, Zika virus

Giotis, ES., Robey, RR., Ross, C., Goodbourn, SE. and Skinner, MA., (2015). ID: 217

Giotis, ES., Robey, RR., Ross, C., Laidlaw, S., Goodbourn, S. and Skinner, MA., (2015). ID: 130

Ascough, S., Sadeyen, J-R., Giotis, E., Laidlaw, S., Staines, K., Mwangi, W., Hernandez, RR., Skinner, M. and Butter, C., (2014). Potentiating the immunogenicity of poxvirus vectors to improve the efficacy of live recombinant viral vaccines in poultry

Giotis, ES., Blair, IS. and McDowell, DA., (2011). Standardisation and optimisation of the Alkaline-Tolerance Response (A1TR) in Listeria monocytogenes 10403S

Krysa, J., Zita, J., Zlamal, M., Kluson, P., Giotis, ES., Loeffler, A., Stark, KDC. and Lloyd, DA., (2010). Ability of Photocatalytic TiO2 Surfaces to Destroy MRSA ST398 under Controlled UV Light Conditions

Reports and Papers (7)

Asfor, AS., Nazki, S., Reddy, VRAP., Campbell, E., Dulwich, KL., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., Transcriptomic analysis reveals that severity of infectious bursal disease in White Leghorn inbred chicken lines is associated with greater bursal inflammation in vivo and more rapid induction of pro-inflammatory responses in primary bursal cells stimulated ex vivo

Liu, PJ., Harris, JM., Marchi, E., D’Arienzo, V., Michler, T., Wing, PAC., Magri, A., Ortega-Prieto, AM., van de Klundert, M., Wettengel, J., Durantel, D., Dorner, M., Klenerman, P., Protzer, U., Giotis, S. and McKeating, JA., (2020). Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B infected patients is not observed in state-of-art in vitro and mouse infection models

Oliveira, M., Rodrigues, DR., Guillory, V., Kut, E., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA., Guabiraba, R., Bryant, CE. and Ferguson, BJ., (2020). Chicken cGAS senses fowlpox virus infection and regulates macrophage effector functions

Dulwich, KL., Asfor, AS., Gray, AG., Giotis, ES., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., (2019). The stronger downregulation ofin vitroandin vivoinnate antiviral responses by a very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), compared to a classical strain, is mediated, in part, by the VP4 protein

Giotis, ES., Carnell, G., Young, EF., Ghanny, S., Soteropoulos, P., Barclay, WS., Skinner, MA. and Temperton, N., (2019). The MHC class-II HLA-DR receptor mediates bat influenza A-like H17N10 virus entry into mammalian cells

Carnell, G., Giotis, E., Grehan, K., Ferrara, F., Mather, S., Molesti, E., Scott, S., Pessi, A., Lacek, K. and Temperton, N., (2018). The bat influenza H17N10 can be neutralized by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and its neuraminidase can facilitate viral egress.

Dulwich, KL., Giotis, ES., Gray, A., Nair, V., Skinner, MA. and Broadbent, AJ., (2017). Differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)

Grants and funding

2021

A metagenomic approach to identify alternative reservoir hosts of Lassa virus and related arenaviruses in Nigeria

University of Essex (GCRF)

Antiviral solutions - To build on previous work to develop solutions based on electrochemically generated metallic nanoparticles to demonstrate efficiency in eliminating bacteria and viruses.

Elentec Ltd

Contact

e.giotis@essex.ac.uk

Location:

Colchester Campus