Dr Michael Barros

School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering (CSEE)
Dr Michael Barros
  • Email

  • Location

    5B.535, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    My Academic Support Hours are on Thursdays from 12.00-13.00 either in-person or Zoom (Link available on Moodle)



Dr Barros is an Assistant Professor (Lecturer) since June 2020 in the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering at the University of Essex, UK. He is the head of the Unconventional Communications and Computing Laboratory, which is part of the Communications and Networks Research Group. He received the PhD in Computer Science at the South East Technological University, Ireland, in 2016. He previously held multiple academic positions with prestigious grants in the Tampere University, Finland, (MSCA-IF) and Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland (IRC GOI Postoc). Dr Barros has worked as a PI and Co-I in several grants winning a total of +€1.5M funded by the European Commission, BBSRC, Innovate UK, and others. Dr Barros is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a member of the EPSRC and BBSRC Engineering Biology Peer Review Colleges and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. He received the CONNECT Prof. Tom Brazil Excellence in Research Award in 2020. He has over 80 research peer-reviewed scientific publications in top journals and conferences such as Nature Scientific Reports, IEEE Transactions on Communications, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, in the areas of molecular and unconventional communications, biomedical engineering, bionano science and Beyond 5G. Since 2020, he is a review editor for the Frontiers in Communications and Networks journal in the area of unconventional communications. He also served as guest editor for the IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications, Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience and Digital Communications Networks journals. Link to the UC2 lab:


  • PhD in Computer Science South East Technological University, (2016)


University of Essex

  • Lecturer of AI and Engineering in Medicine, University of Essex (1/6/2020 - present)

Other academic

  • MSCA-IF Research Fellow (part-time), Tampere University (9/2019 - 8/2022)

  • EU Project Research Fellow, South East Technological University (1/10/2018 - 31/8/2019)

  • IRC Government of Ireland Postdoc Fellow, South East Technological University (1/10/2016 - 30/9/2018)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Unconventional Medical Devices: Bridging molecules to the digital world

Molecular communciations is a recent interdisciplinary research area that integrates concepts from telecommunications and computer networks for the dual goal of 1) designing communication using molecules for synthetically engineered cells or unconventional implantable medical devices and 2) further analyse biological communications for deeper understanding of tissues and organs functioning. We have sucessfully designed communication system models using in-silico and in-vitro models of different types of biological systems including, neurons, astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells as well as bacteria. We work close with experimental in-vitro data in our in-silico models with the vision of developing validated digital twins solutions that one day can be translated to clinical practices.

Key words: biomedical engineering
Open to supervise

Biocomputing using Living Cells: from theory to practice

The manipulation, or control, of tissues enables the possibility of further exploring novel activity patterns that derives new ways of tissue behaviour. Biocomputing can be derived from this vision, where we have proposed that the communication of cells can be optimitized in a way that performs Boolean logic gates. We have used different types of cells, by which we have succesfully achieve the obtention of logic gates functions in astrocytes, neurons and bacteria. We have developed both in-silico and in-vitro models that show such technology can be achieved. We have designed control and optimization models that range from control theory mathematical derivations to machine learning-based optimizations. Our plans for the future include the deep exploratory work that will answer how many logic gates and circuits can be obtained from this approach as well as what biological parameters should be consider to provide full optimised solutions that are safe to be implanted. We will also expand our analysis to derived in-vitro models that show the possible sensing and treatment technology that can emerge from biocomputing systems, where the vision is to provide more efficient and biocompatible solutions than existing biomedical devices.

Key words: artificial intellingence
Open to supervise

In-vivo Networking for Biomedical Distributed Interfaces

The large scale and long term implantation of unconventional medical systems depends on the distribution of the devices or externally controlled cells that produce a desired, but yet very precise, sensing or actuation in the body. This is only possible if these systems are communicating to each other as well as to the outside the body. We term this technology as in-vivo networking, which we consider as one of the stepping stones for the developed of the futuristic vision of the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. We have developed networking protocols for ultrasound-based communications between external and implantable devices. We focus on the manipulation of ultrasound signals to perform not only communication but to provide energy to bateryless implantable systems for neural interfaces, which is used as a sensing mechanism of biological neural networks powered by AI. We are now expading to multiple communication channels that can use ultrasound signals as well as optical and RF-mmWave. We are also further validating our models using 3D ex-vivo-based platforms testing how wireless signals can be changed to overcome signal losses and impedance mismatching towards high-bandwidth interfaces.

Key words: beamforming
Open to supervise

Wireless Communications for Implantable Medical Devices

"Wireless Communications for Implantable Medical Devices" is an exciting and groundbreaking research project offering prospective Ph.D. students an opportunity to delve into the world of cutting-edge healthcare technology. In this project, you will explore innovative wireless communication techniques and protocols tailored specifically for implantable medical devices. By developing advanced wireless systems, you will contribute to revolutionizing patient care and enhancing the efficiency and reliability of medical treatments. This interdisciplinary project combines aspects of electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and telecommunications, providing a unique platform to address the challenges of data transmission, power management, and network optimization in the context of implantable medical devices. Join us in shaping the future of healthcare through wireless innovation and make a lasting impact on patient well-being.

Open to supervise

3D bioprinting technologies for bioengineering and medicine

Our cutting-edge research project focuses on the development and application of 3D printing technologies in the field of biocyber technologies, offering an exciting opportunity for prospective Ph.D. students. By harnessing the power of 3D printing, we aim to revolutionize the way we design and fabricate biocompatible materials, bioelectronic devices, and biomedical implants. Through interdisciplinary collaboration, you will explore novel materials, design methodologies, and fabrication techniques to enhance the integration of biological and electronic systems. This project offers a unique platform to contribute to the advancement of biocyber technologies, with potential applications in personalized medicine, regenerative engineering, and neuroprosthetics. Join us to shape the future of biocyber technologies through innovative 3D printing research.

Open to supervise

Conferences and presentations

MBMC Track Chair

IEEE Conference on Communications, 1/7/2023

TPC Co-Chair

ACM NANOCOM 2021, 13/9/2021

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • C++ Programming (CE221)

  • Computer Security (CE708)


Journal articles (47)

Stano, P., Kuscu, M., Barros, M., Egan, M., Kuruma, Y., Balasubramaniam, S., Wang, J. and Nakano, T., Molecular Communication Approaches for Wetware Artificial Life: A Workshop Report. MC-ALIFE 2023

Schöfmann, CM., Fasli, M. and Barros, MT., (2024). Investigating Biologically Plausible Neural Networks for Reservoir Computing Solutions. IEEE Access. 12, 50698-50709

Borges, LF., Barros, MT. and Nogueira, M., (2024). Cell signaling error control for reliable molecular communications. Frontiers in Communications and Networks. 5, 1332379-

Egan, M., Kuscu, M., Barros, MT., Booth, M., Llopis-Lorente, A., Magarini, M., Martins, DP., Schäfer, M. and Stano, P., (2023). Toward Interdisciplinary Synergies in Molecular Communications: Perspectives from Synthetic Biology, Nanotechnology, Communications Engineering and Philosophy of Science. Life. 13 (1), 208-208

Basso, G. and Barros, MT., (2023). Biocomputing Model Using Tripartite Synapses Provides Reliable Neuronal Logic Gating with Spike Pattern Diversity.. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 22 (2), 401-412

Firew, H. and Barros, M., (2023). An Adaptable Lateral Resolution Acoustic Beamforming for the Internet of Bio-Nano Things in the Brain. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 9 (2), 217-221

Kuscu, M., Stano, P., Egan, M., Barros, MT., Unluturk, BD. and Payne, GF., (2023). Guest Editorial Special Feature on Bio-Chem-ICTs: Synergies Between Bio/Nanotechnologies and Molecular Communications. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 9 (3), 351-353

Regis, CDM., Silva, ÍDS., Guimarães, PIA., Silva, ETDAD. and Barros, MT., (2023). Dual Ionic Transport Using Ca²⁺and Na²⁺ Signaling for Molecular Communication Systems. IEEE Access. 11, 61331-61345

Adonias, GL., Duffy, C., Barros, MT., McCoy, CE. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2022). Analysis of the Information Capacity of Neuronal Molecular Communications Under Demyelination and Remyelination.. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 29, 2765-2774

Barros, MT., Siljak, H., Mullen, P., Papadias, C., Hyttinen, J. and Marchetti, N., (2022). Objective Supervised Machine Learning-Based Classification and Inference of Biological Neuronal Networks. Molecules. 27 (19), 6256-6256

Martins, DP., Barros, MT., O'Sullivan, BJ., Seymour, I., O'Riordan, A., Coffey, L., Sweeney, JB. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2022). Microfluidic-Based Bacterial Molecular Computing on a Chip. IEEE Sensors Journal. 22 (17), 16772-16784

Siljak, H., Barros, MT., Cooke, L. and Marchetti, N., (2022). Intelligent Dynamic Indoor Aerosol Sensing Using Terahertz Band Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Networking Letters. 4 (4), 184-188

Siljak, H., Barros, MT., D'Arcy, N., Martins, DP., Marchetti, N. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2022). Applying Intelligent Reflector Surfaces for Detecting Violent Expiratory Aerosol Cloud using Terahertz Signals. IEEE Network. 37 (5), 56-63

Lenk, K., Genocchi, B., Barros, MT. and Hyttinen, JAK., (2021). Larger Connection Radius Increases Hub Astrocyte Number in a 3D Neuron-Astrocyte Network Model. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 7 (2), 83-88

Barros, MT., Doan, P., Kandhavelu, M., Jennings, B. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Engineering calcium signaling of astrocytes for neural-molecular computing logic gates.. Scientific Reports. 11 (1), 595-

Bernal, SL., Celdrán, AH., Pérez, GM., Barros, MT. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Security in Brain-Computer Interfaces: State-of-the-Art, Opportunities, and Future Challenges. ACM Computing Surveys. 54 (1), 1-35

Barros, MT., Veletic, M., Kanada, M., Pierobon, M., Vainio, S., Balasingham, I. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Molecular Communications in Viral Infections Research: Modelling, Experimental Data and Future Directions. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 7 (3), 121-141

Borges, LF., Barros, MT. and Nogueira, M., (2021). Toward Reliable Intra-Body Molecular Communication: An Error Control Perspective. IEEE Communications Magazine. 59 (5), 114-120

Haselmayr, W., Hyttinen, J., Schafer, M., Femminella, M., Morris, RJ., Lenk, K., Noel, A. and Barros, MT., (2021). Special Issue—Advances in Molecular Communications: Theory, Experiment, and Application. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 7 (2), 69-72

Balasubramaniam, S., Barros, MT., Veletic, M., Kanada, M., Pierobon, M., Vainio, S. and Balasingham, I., (2021). Editorial—Special Issue on Molecular Communications for Diagnostics and Therapeutic Development of Infectious Diseases. IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. 7 (3), 117-120

Siljak, H., Ashraf, N., Barros, MT., Martins, DP., Butler, B., Farhang, A., Marchetti, N. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Evolving Intelligent Reflector Surface Toward 6G for Public Health: Application in Airborne Virus Detection. IEEE Network. 35 (5), 306-312

Moioli, RC., Nardelli, PHJ., Barros, MT., Saad, W., Hekmatmanesh, A., Silva, PEG., de Sena, AS., Dzaferagic, M., Siljak, H., Van Leekwijck, W., Melgarejo, DC. and Latre, S., (2021). Neurosciences and Wireless Networks: The Potential of Brain-Type Communications and Their Applications. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials. 23 (3), 1599-1621

Ahtiainen, A., Genocchi, B., Tanskanen, JMA., Barros, MT., Hyttinen, JAK. and Lenk, K., (2021). Astrocytes Exhibit a Protective Role in Neuronal Firing Patterns under Chemically Induced Seizures in Neuron-Astrocyte Co-Cultures.. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 22 (23), 12770-12770

Barros, MT., Velez, G., Arregui, H., Loyo, E., Sharma, K., Mujika, A. and Jennings, B., (2020). CogITS: cognition‐enabled network management for 5G V2X communication. IET Intelligent Transport Systems. 14 (3), 182-189

Veletic, M., Barros, MT., Arjmandi, H., Balasubramaniam, S. and Balasingham, I., (2020). Modeling of Modulated Exosome Release From Differentiated Induced Neural Stem Cells for Targeted Drug Delivery. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 19 (3), 357-367

Adonias, GL., Yastrebova, A., Barros, MT., Koucheryavy, Y., Cleary, F. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2020). Utilizing Neurons for Digital Logic Circuits: A Molecular Communications Analysis. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 19 (2), 224-236

Pengnoo, M., Barros, MT., Wuttisittikulkij, L., Butler, B., Davy, A. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2020). Digital Twin for Metasurface Reflector Management in 6G Terahertz Communications. IEEE Access. 8, 114580-114596

Bernal, SL., Celdran, AH., Maimo, LF., Barros, MT., Balasubramaniam, S. and Perez, GM., (2020). Cyberattacks on Miniature Brain Implants to Disrupt Spontaneous Neural Signaling. IEEE Access. 8, 152204-152222

Adonias, GL., Siljak, H., Barros, MT., Marchetti, N., White, M. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2020). Reconfigurable Filtering of Neuro-Spike Communications Using Synthetically Engineered Logic Circuits.. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 14, 556628-

Martins, DP., Barros, MT. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2019). Quality and Capacity Analysis of Molecular Communications in Bacterial Synthetic Logic Circuits. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 18 (4), 628-639

Arregui, H., Mujika, A., Loyo, E., Velez, G., Barros, MT. and Otaegui, O., (2019). Short-Term Vehicle Traffic Prediction for Terahertz Line-of-Sight Estimation and Optimization in Small Cells. IEEE Access. 7, 144408-144424

Barros, MT., Siljak, H., Ekky, A. and Marchetti, N., (2019). A Topology Inference Method of Cortical Neuron Networks Based on Network Tomography and the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. IEEE Networking Letters. 1 (4), 142-145

Martins, DP., Barros, MT., Pierobon, M., Kandhavelu, M., Lio, P. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2018). Computational Models for Trapping Ebola Virus Using Engineered Bacteria. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. 15 (6), 2017-2027

Martins, DP., Leetanasaksakul, K., Barros, MT., Thamchaipenet, A., Donnelly, W. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2018). Molecular Communications Pulse-Based Jamming Model for Bacterial Biofilm Suppression. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 17 (4), 533-542

Balasubramaniam, S., Wirdatmadja, SA., Barros, MT., Koucheryavy, Y., Stachowiak, M. and Jornet, JM., (2018). Wireless Communications for Optogenetics-Based Brain Stimulation: Present Technology and Future Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine. 56 (7), 218-224

Barros, MT., Silva, W. and Regis, CDM., (2018). The Multi-Scale Impact of the Alzheimer’s Disease on the Topology Diversity of Astrocytes Molecular Communications Nanonetworks. IEEE Access. 6, 78904-78917

Barros, M. and Dey, S., (2018). Feed-forward and Feedback Control in Astrocytes for Ca2+-based Molecular Communications Nanonetworks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. 17 (4), 1-1

Barros, MT., (2017). Ca 2+ -signaling-based molecular communication systems: Design and future research directions. Nano Communication Networks. 11, 103-113

Barros, MT., Mullins, R. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2017). Integrated Terahertz Communication With Reflectors for 5G Small-Cell Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 66 (7), 5647-5657

Wirdatmadja, SA., Barros, MT., Koucheryavy, Y., Jornet, JM. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2017). Wireless Optogenetic Nanonetworks for Brain Stimulation: Device Model and Charging Protocols. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 16 (8), 859-872

Taynnan Barros, M., Balasubramaniam, S. and Jennings, B., (2015). Comparative End-to-End Analysis of Ca2+-Signaling-Based Molecular Communication in Biological Tissues. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 63 (12), 5128-5142

Barros, MT., Balasubramaniam, S. and Jennings, B., (2014). Using Information Metrics and Molecular Communication to Detect Cellular Tissue Deformation. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 13 (3), 278-288

Barros, MT., Balasubramaniam, S., Jennings, B. and Koucheryavy, Y., (2014). Transmission Protocols for Calcium-Signaling-Based Molecular Communications in Deformable Cellular Tissue. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology. 13 (4), 779-788

De Alencar, MS., Lins, PR. and Barros, MT., (2013). Stochastic analysis of the laser spectrum considering the phase noise effect. Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications. 12 (SPEC. ISSUE 2), 57-65

Taynnan Barros, M., Cezar de Morais Gomes, R. and Fabiano Batista Ferreira da Costa, A., (2012). Routing Architecture for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks. IEEE Latin America Transactions. 10 (1), 1411-1419

Taynnan Barros, M., Ribeiro Lins, P. and Sampaio Alencar, M., (2012). Traffic Grooming for Clonal Selection Routing over Dynamically Wavelength-Routed Switched Networks. IEEE Latin America Transactions. 10 (1), 1435-1443

Barros, MT., Lins Junior, PR. and Alencar, MS., (2011). CSA: A Route Clonal Selection Algorithm for Dynamic WDM Networks. Journal of Communications Software and Systems. 7 (4), 121-121

Book chapters (1)

(2013). VANET dynamic routing protocols: evaluation, challenges and solutions. In: Dynamic Ad-Hoc Networks. Institution of Engineering and Technology. 121- 140. 9781849196475

Conferences (25)

Borges, LF., Barros, MT. and Nogueira, M., Modelo de Comunicação Molecular Multiportadora com Ruído Intracelular e Intercelular

Fonseca, C., Barros, MT., Odysseos, A., Kidambi, S. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2022). Quasi-spherical absorbing receiver model of glioblastoma cells for exosome-based molecular communications

Lotter, S., Barros, MT., Schober, R. and Schafer, M., (2022). Signal Reception With Generic Three-State Receptors in Synaptic MC

Fonseca, B., Fonseca, C., Barros, M., White, M., Abhyankar, V., Borkholder, DA. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Ultrasound-based Control of Micro-Bubbles for Exosome Delivery in Treating COVID-19 Lung Damage

Hyttinen, J., Genocchi, B., Ahtiainen, A., Tanskanen, JMA., Lenk, K. and Barros, MT., (2021). Astrocytes in modulating subcellular, cellular and intercellular molecular neuronal communication

Fonseca, C., Barros, MT., Odysseos, A. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2021). Predator-Prey Adaptive Control for Exosome-based Molecular Communications Glioblastoma Treatment

Genocchi, B., Ahtiainen, A., Barros, MT., Tanskanen, JMA., Hyttinen, J. and Lenk, K., (2021). Astrocytic control in in vitro and simulated neuron-astrocyte networks

Abadal, S., Barros, MT. and Krishnaswamy, B., (2021). Technical Program Committee Chairs Message

Borges, LF., Barros, MT. and Nogueira, M., (2021). A Synchronization Protocol for Multi-User Cell Signaling-Based Molecular Communication

Borges, LF., Barros, MT. and Nogueira, M., (2020). A Multi-Carrier Molecular Communication Model for Astrocyte Tissues

Veletić, M., Barros, MT., Balasingham, I. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2019). A Molecular Communication Model of Exosome-mediated Brain Drug Delivery

Guimarães, AM., de Carvalho, GIF., Silva Cruz, MDC., Lima, FS., Regis, CDM. and Barros, MT., (2019). Analyzing the effect of body temperature variation in maturation response time of B lymphocytes

Barros, MT., (2018). Capacity of the hierarchical multi-layered cortical microcircuit communication channel

Adonias, GL., Barros, MT., Doyle, L. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2018). Utilising EEG signals for modulating neural molecular communications

Benediktsson, JA., Dressler, F., Payne, GF., Juntti, M., Schober, R., Tentzeris, EM., Kokkoniemi, J., Balasingham, I., Jornet, JM., Han, C., Feng, L., Barros, M., Perli, S., Caleffi, M., Lehtomaki, J., Vegni, AM., Dinc, E., Cacciapuoti, AS., Kuscu, M., Sakkaff, Z., Akyildiz, IF., Balasubramaniam, S., Akan, OB., Pierobon, M., Nakano, T. and Armada, AG., (2018). ACM NANOCOM 2018: 5th ACM international conference on nanoscale computing and communication: Reykjavik, Iceland, September 5-7, 2018

Barros, MT. and Dey, S., (2017). Set point regulation of astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ signalling

Martins, DP., Barros, MT. and Balasubramaniam, S., (2016). Using Competing Bacterial Communication to Disassemble Biofilms

Barros, MT., Balasubramaniam, S., Jennings, B. and Koucheryavy, Y., (2014). Adaptive transmission protocol for molecular communications in cellular tissues

Barros, MT., Gomes, R., de Alencar, MS. and da Costa, AFBF., (2013). IP traffic classifiers applied to DiffServ networks

Barros, MT., Gomes, RC., De Alencar, MS. and Costa, AF., (2013). Feature filtering techniques applied in IP traffic classification

Barros, MT., Balasubramaniam, S. and Jennings, B., (2013). Error control for calcium signaling based molecular communication

Barros, MT., Gomes, R., Costa, A. and Wang, R., (2012). Evaluation of performance and scalability of routing protocols for VANETs on the Manhattan Mobility Model

Ribeiro, LP., Barros, MT. and de Alencar, MS., (2011). Performance of wavelength assignment heuristics in a dynamic optical network with adaptive routing and traffic grooming

Barros, M., Costa, A. and Gomes, R., (2010). GVDSR: A Dynamic Routing stategy for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

Barros, MT., Lins, PR. and Alencar, MS., (2010). Performance comparison between dynamic optical circuit switching and optical burst switching

Grants and funding


Optimisation of exosome-based therapies from 3D BioPrinted stem cell structures

[UOE_BIAA] University of Essex (BBSRC IAA)

ROS signaling in plants: Are we missing a fundamental pathway?

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council


Instant Makr Ltd KTP Application (June 22_23 R2)

Innovate UK (formerly Technology Strategy Board)



5B.535, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

My Academic Support Hours are on Thursdays from 12.00-13.00 either in-person or Zoom (Link available on Moodle)