People

Prof Arnold Wilkins

Emeritus Professor
Department of Psychology
Prof Arnold Wilkins
  • Email

  • Location

    3.713, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    MSc project supervision

Profile

Biography

Leon Gaster Memorial Award, CIBSE 1990 Walsh Weston Memorial Award, CIBSE 1991 Owen Aves Medal, 2003 Honorary Fellowship, College of Optometry, 2005

Qualifications

  • DPhil University of Sussex (1973)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

Visual perception, including colour vision and the design of ophthalmic tints

Use of ophthalmic tints in autism and multiple sclerosis

The response of the brain to visual stimuli measured using near infrared spectroscopy

Lighting and its biological effects

Visual dysfunction in migraine

Photosensitive epilepsy and migraine

Reading disorders and the design of text for children

Spectral and chromatic analysis of uncomfortable images

Publications

Journal articles (163)

Haigh, SM., Cooper, NR. and Wilkins, AJ., (2018). Chromaticity separation and the alpha response. Neuropsychologia. 108, 1-5

Boyce, PR. and Wilkins, A., (2018). Visual discomfort indoors. Lighting Research and Technology. 50 (1), 98-114

Srinivasan, K., Krishnan, G., Wilkins, A. and Allen, P., (2018). Reliability and validity of a Kannada rate of reading test. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 66 (5), 630-633

Yoshimoto, S., Garcia, J., Jiang, F., Wilkins, AJ., Takeuchi, T. and Webster, MA., (2017). Visual discomfort and flicker. Vision Research. 138, 18-28

Wilkins, AJ., (2017). Risk of bias in assessing Risk of Bias. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 37 (1), 107-109

Le, AT., Payne, J., Clarke, C., Kelly, MA., Prudenziati, F., Armsby, E., Penacchio, O. and Wilkins, AJ., (2017). Discomfort from urban scenes: Metabolic consequences. Landscape and Urban Planning. 160, 61-68

Evans, BJ., Allen, PM. and Wilkins, AJ., (2017). A Delphi study to develop practical diagnostic guidelines for visual stress (pattern-related visual stress). Journal of Optometry. 10 (3), 161-168

Ludlow, AK. and Wilkins, AJ., (2016). Atypical Sensory behaviours in children with Tourette’s Syndrome and in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 56, 108-116

Whitaker, L., Jones, CR., Wilkins, AJ. and Roberson, D., (2016). Judging the Intensity of Emotional Expression in Faces: the Effects of Colored Tints on Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research. 9 (4), 450-459

Engel, SA., Wilkins, AJ., Mand, S., Helwig, NE. and Allen, PM., (2016). Habitual wearers of colored lenses adapt more rapidly to the color changes the lenses produce. Vision Research. 125, 41-48

Monger, LJ., Shah, D., Wilkins, AJ. and Allen, PM., (2016). The effect of viewing distance on responses to the pattern glare test. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 99 (1), 47-50

Myint, J., Latham, K., Mann, D., Gomersall, P., Wilkins, AJ. and Allen, PM., (2016). The relationship between visual function and performance in rifle shooting for athletes with vision impairment. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2 (1), e000080-e000080

Haigh, S., Cooper, N. and Wilkins, A., (2015). Cortical excitability and the shape of the haemodynamic response. NeuroImage. 111, 379-384

Le, ATD., Cole, GG. and Wilkins, AJ., (2015). Assessment of trypophobia and an analysis of its visual precipitation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 68 (11), 2304-2322

Monger, LJ., Wilkins, AJ. and Allen, PM., (2015). Pattern glare: the effects of contrast and color. Frontiers in Psychology. 6 (OCT), 1651-

Penacchio, O. and Wilkins, AJ., (2015). Visual discomfort and the spatial distribution of Fourier energy. Vision Research. 108, 1-7

Wilkins, AJ. and Kiff, IE., (2015). On the clarity of the musical stave. Psychology of Music. 43 (6), 870-880

Hollingsworth, RS., Ludlow, AK., Wilkins, AJ., Calver, RI. and Allen, PM., (2015). Visual Performance and the Use of Colored Filters in Children Who Are Deaf. Optometry and Vision Science. 92 (6), 1-1

Monger, L., Wilkins, A. and Allen, P., (2015). Identifying visual stress during a routine eye examination. Journal of Optometry. 8 (2), 140-145

Lehman, B. and Wilkins, AJ., (2014). Designing to Mitigate Effects of Flicker in LED Lighting: Reducing risks to health and safety. IEEE Power Electronics Magazine. 1 (3), 18-26

Hollingsworth, R., Ludlow, AK., Wilkins, A., Calver, R. and Allen, PM., (2014). Visual performance and ocular abnormalities in deaf children and young adults: a literature review. Acta Ophthalmologica. 92 (4), 305-310

Wilkins, A., (2014). Opinion: CFF is a seductive but misleading concept. Lighting Research & Technology. 46 (4), 368-368

Haigh, SM., Barningham, L., Berntsen, M., Coutts, LV., Hobbs, ES., Irabor, J., Lever, EM., Tang, P. and Wilkins, AJ., (2013). Discomfort and the cortical haemodynamic response to coloured gratings. Vision Research. 89, 47-53

Cole, GG. and Wilkins, AJ., (2013). Fear of Holes. Psychological Science. 24 (10), 1980-1985

Braithwaite, JJ., Broglia, E., Bagshaw, AP. and Wilkins, AJ., (2013). Evidence for elevated cortical hyperexcitability and its association with out-of-body experiences in the non-clinical population: New findings from a pattern-glare task. Cortex. 49 (3), 793-805

Braithwaite, JJ., Broglia, E., Brincat, O., Stapley, L., Wilkins, AJ. and Takahashi, C., (2013). Signs of increased cortical hyperexcitability selectively associated with spontaneous anomalous bodily experiences in a nonclinical population. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 18 (6), 549-573

Roberts, J. and Wilkins, A., (2013). Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz. Lighting Research & Technology. 45 (1), 124-132

Haigh, SM., Jaschinski, W., Allen, PM. and Wilkins, AJ., (2013). Accommodation to Uncomfortable Patterns. Perception. 42 (2), 208-222

Coutts, LV., Cooper, CE., Elwell, CE. and Wilkins, AJ., (2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Cephalalgia. 32 (8), 621-629

Haigh, S., Karanovic, O., Wilkinson, F. and Wilkins, A., (2012). Cortical hyperexcitability in migraine and aversion to patterns. Cephalalgia. 32 (3), 236-240

Allen, PM., Dedi, S., Kumar, D., Patel, T., Aloo, M. and Wilkins, AJ., (2012). Accommodation, Pattern Glare, and Coloured Overlays. Perception. 41 (12), 1458-1467

Ludlow, AK., Taylor-Whiffen, E. and Wilkins, AJ., (2012). Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. ISRN Neurology. 2012, 1-6

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D., Rubboli, G., Hirsch, E., Martins da Silva, A., Seri, S., Wilkins, A., Parra, J., Covanis, A., Elia, M., Capovilla, G., Stephani, U. and Harding, G., (2012). Methodology of photic stimulation revisited: Updated European algorithm for visual stimulation in the EEG laboratory. Epilepsia. 53 (1), 16-24

Khalil, NM., Nicotra, A. and Wilkins, AJ., (2011). Asymmetry of visual function in migraine with aura: Correlation with lateralisation of headache and aura. Cephalalgia. 31 (2), 213-221

Lehman, B., Wilkins, A., Berman, S., Poplawski, M. and Miller, NJ., (2011). Proposing measures of flicker in the low frequencies for lighting applications. LEUKOS - Journal of Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 7 (3), 189-195

Huang, J., Zong, X., Wilkins, A., Jenkins, B., Bozoki, A. and Cao, Y., (2011). fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine. Cephalalgia. 31 (8), 925-936

Wilkins, AJ. and Evans, BJ., (2010). Visual stress, its treatment with spectral filters, and its relationship to visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics. 41 (4), 509-515

Jainta, S., Jaschinski, W. and Wilkins, AJ., (2010). Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading. Journal of Vision. 10 (13), 2-2

Allen, PM., Hussain, A., Usherwood, C. and Wilkins, AJ., (2010). Pattern-Related Visual Stress, Chromaticity, and Accommodation. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science. 51 (12), 6843-6843

Smedley, ARD., Webb, AR. and Wilkins, AJ., (2010). Potential of wind turbines to elicit seizures under various meteorological conditions. Epilepsia. 51 (7), 1146-1151

Juricevic, I., Land, L., Wilkins, A. and Webster, MA., (2010). Visual Discomfort and Natural Image Statistics. Perception. 39 (7), 884-899

Jainta, S., Jaschinski, W. and Wilkins, AJ., (2010). Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading. Journal of vision. 10 (13), 2-

Ludlow, AK. and Wilkins, AJ., (2009). Case Report: Color as a Therapeutic Intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (5), 815-818

Wilkins, A., Cleave, R., Grayson, N. and Wilson, L., (2009). Typography for children may be inappropriately designed. Journal of Research in Reading. 32 (4), 402-412

Winterbottom, M. and Wilkins, A., (2009). Lighting and discomfort in the classroom. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 29 (1), 63-75

Fernandez, D. and Wilkins, AJ., (2008). Uncomfortable Images in Art and Nature. Perception. 37 (7), 1098-1113

Ludlow, A., Wilkins, A. and Heaton, P., (2008). Colored overlays enhance visual perceptual performance in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2 (3), 498-515

Harding, G., Harding, P. and Wilkins, A., (2008). Wind turbines, flicker, and photosensitive epilepsy: Characterizing the flashing that may precipitate seizures and optimizing guidelines to prevent them. Epilepsia. 49 (6), 1095-1098

Wilkins, AJ., Smith, J., Willison, CK., Beare, T., Boyd, A., Hardy, G., Mell, L., Peach, C. and Harper, S., (2007). Stripes within Words Affect Reading. Perception. 36 (12), 1788-1803

Newman Wright, B., Wilkins, AJ. and Zoukos, Y., (2007). Spectral filters can improve reading and visual search in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology. 254 (12), 1729-1735

D'Ath, PJ., David Thomson, W. and Wilkins, AJ., (2007). Memory for the color of non-monochromatic lights. Color Research & Application. 32 (1), 11-15

Smith, L. and Wilkins, A., (2007). How many colours are necessary to increase the reading speed of children with visual stress? A comparison of two systems. Journal of Research in Reading. 30 (3), 332-343

Wilkins, A., Huang, J. and Cao, Y., (2007). Prevention of visual stress and migraine with precision spectral filters. Drug Development Research. 68 (7), 469-475

Ludlow, AK., Wilkins, AJ. and Heaton, P., (2006). The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36 (4), 507-516

Griffin, M., Prior, D., Cooper, CE., Wilkins, AJ. and Elwell, CE., (2006). Near infrared spectroscopy as a noninvasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine?. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 578, 203-208

Griffin, M., Prior, D., Cooper, CE., Wilkins, AJ. and Elwell, CE., (2006). Near infrared spectroscopy as a non-invasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine?. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 578, 203-208

RIDDELL, PM., WILKINS, A. and HAINLINE, L., (2006). The Effect of Colored Lenses on the Visual Evoked Response in Children With Visual Stress. Optometry and Vision Science. 83 (5), 299-305

Wilkins, AJ., Sihra, N. and Myers, A., (2005). Increasing Reading Speed by Using Colours: Issues concerning Reliability and Specificity, and Their Theoretical and Practical Implications. Perception. 34 (1), 109-120

Harding, G., Wilkins, AJ., Erba, G., Barkley, GL. and Fisher, RS., (2005). Photic- and Pattern-induced Seizures: Expert Consensus of the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia. 46 (9), 1423-1425

Wilkins, A., Emmett, J. and Harding, G., (2005). Characterizing the Patterned Images That Precipitate Seizures and Optimizing Guidelines To Prevent Them. Epilepsia. 46 (8), 1212-1218

Fisher, RS., Harding, G., Erba, G., Barkley, GL. and Wilkins, A., (2005). Photic- and Pattern-induced Seizures: A Review for the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia. 46 (9), 1426-1441

Wilkins, A., Sihra, N. and Smith, IN., (2005). How precise do precision tints have to be and how many are necessary?. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 25 (3), 269-276

Wilkins, AJ., Bonanni, P., Porciatti, V. and Guerrini, R., (2004). Physiology of Human Photosensitivity. Epilepsia. 45 (s1), 7-13

Covanis, A., Stodieck, SRG. and Wilkins, AJ., (2004). Treatment of Photosensitivity. Epilepsia. 45 (s1), 40-45

Wilkins, A., Huang, J. and Cao, Y., (2004). Visual stress theory and its application to reading and reading tests. Journal of Research in Reading. 27 (2), 152-162

Waldie, M. and Wilkins, A., (2004). How big does a coloured overlay have to be?. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 24 (1), 57-60

Wilkins, A., Patel, R., Adjamian, P. and Evans, B., (2002). Tinted Spectacles and Visually Sensitive Migraine. Cephalalgia. 22 (9), 711-719

Bouldoukian, J., Wilkins, AJ. and Evans, BJW., (2002). Randomised controlled trial of the effect of coloured overlays on the rate of reading of people with specific learning difficulties. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (1), 55-60

Evans, BJW., Patel, R. and Wilkins, AJ., (2002). Optometric function in visually sensitive migraine before and after treatment with tinted spectacles. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (2), 130-142

Binnie, CD., Emmett, J., Gardiner, P., Harding, GFA., Harrison, D. and Wilkins, AJ., (2002). Characterizing the flashing television images that precipitate seizures. SMPTE Journal. 111 (7-8), 323-328

Hughes, LE. and Wilkins, AJ., (2002). Reading at a distance: Implications for the design of text in children's big books. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 72 (2), 213-226

Binnie, CD., Emmett, J., Gardiner, P., Harding, GFA., Harrison, D. and Wilkins, AJ., (2002). Characterizing the Flashing Television Images that Precipitate Seizures. SMPTE Journal. 111 (6-7), 323-329

Wilkins, A., (2002). Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (5), 448-454

Scott, L., McWhinnie, H., Taylor, L., Stevenson, N., Irons, P., Lewis, E., Evans, M., Evans, B. and Wilkins, A., (2002). Coloured overlays in schools: orthoptic and optometric findings. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (2), 156-165

Simmers, AJ., Gray, LS. and Wilkins, AJ., (2001). The influence of tinted lenses upon ocular accommodation. Vision Research. 41 (9), 1229-1238

Wilkins, AJ. and Sihra, N., (2001). A colorizer for use in determining an optimal ophthalmic tint. Color Research & Application. 26 (3), 246-253

Simmers, AJ., Bex, PJ., Smith, FKH. and Wilkins, AJ., (2001). Spatiotemporal visual function in tinted lens wearers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 42 (3), 879-884

Wilkins, A., Lewis, E., Smith, F., Rowland, E. and Tweedie, W., (2001). Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading. Journal of Research in Reading. 24 (1), 41-64

Hughes, L. and Wilkins, A., (2000). Typography in children's reading schemes may be suboptimal: Evidence from measures of reading rate. Journal of Research in Reading. 23 (3), 314-324

Evans, BJW., Patel, R., Wilkins, AJ., Lightstone, A., Eperjesi, F., Speedwell, L. and Duffy, J., (1999). A review of the management of 323 consecutive patients seen in a specific learning difficulties clinic. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 19 (6), 454-466

Wilkins, AJ., Baker, A., Amin, D., Smith, S., Bradford, J., Zaiwalla, Z., Besag, FM., Binnie, CD. and Fish, D., (1999). Treatment of photosensitive epilepsy using coloured glasses. Seizure. 8 (8), 444-449

Lightstone, A., Lightstone, T. and Wilkins, A., (1999). Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 19 (4), 279-285

Trenite, DGA-N., Binnie, CD., Harding, GFA. and Wilkins, A., (1999). Photic Stimulation: Standardization of Screening Methods. Epilepsia. 40 (s4), 75-79

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, DGA., Binnie, CD., Harding, GFA., Wilkins, A., Covanis, T., Eeg-Olofsson, O., Goosens, L., Henriksen, O., Krämer, G., Leyten, F., Lopes Da Silva, FH., Martins Da Silva, A., Naquet, R., Pedersen, B., Ricci, S., Rubboli, G., Spekreijse, H. and Waltz, S., (1999). Medical technology assessment photic stimulation - Standardization of screening methods. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 29 (4), 318-324

Wilkins, A. and Lewis, E., (1999). Coloured Overlays, Text, and Texture. Perception. 28 (5), 641-650

Binnie, CD. and Wilkins, AJ., (1998). Visually induced seizures not caused by flicker (intermittent light stimulation).. Advances in neurology. 75, 123-138

Jeanes, R., Busby, A., Martin, J., Lewis, E., Stevenson, N., Pointon, D. and Wilkins, A., (1997). Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading. British Journal of Psychology. 88 (4), 531-548

Sellen, A., Louie, G., Harris, J. and Wilkins, A., (1997). What Brings Intentions to Mind? An In Situ Study of Prospective Memory. Memory. 5 (4), 483-507

CHEN, E., LAM, L., CHEN, R., NGUYEN, D., CHAN, C. and WILKINS, A., (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of sustained attention in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 24 (3), 299-310

BINNIE, CD., WILKINS;, AJ., CABRERA-VALDIVIA, F., JIMENEZ-JIMENEZ, FJ., TEJEIRO, J., AYUSO-PERALTA, L., VAQUERO, A. and GARCIA-ALBEA, E., (1997). Ecstatic seizures induced by television. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 63 (2), 273a-273a

Jeanes, R., Busby, A., Martin, J., Lewis, E., Stevenson, N., Pointon, D. and Wilkins, A., (1997). Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading.. British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953). 88

Evans, BJW., Wilkins, AJ., Brown, J., Busby, A., Wingfield, A., Jeanes, R. and Bald, J., (1996). A preliminary investigation into the aetiology of Meares-Irlen syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 16 (4), 286-296

Wilkins, AJ., Jeanes, RJ., Pumfrey, PD. and Laskier, M., (1996). Rate of Reading Test(R): Its reliability, and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS. 16 (6), 491-497

Chronicle, E. and Wilkins, AJ., (1996). Gratings That Induce Perceptual Distortions Mask Superimposed Targets. Perception. 25 (6), 661-668

Wilkins, AJ., Jeanes, RJ., Pumfrey, PD. and Laskier, M., (1996). Rate of Reading Test® : Its reliability, and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 16 (6), 491-497

Chronicle, E., Wilkins, A. and Coleston, D., (1995). Thresholds for Detection of a Target Against a Background Grating Suggest Visual Dysfunction in Migraine With Aura But Not Migraine Without Aura. Cephalalgia. 15 (2), 117-122

Tyrrell, R., Holland, K., Dennis, D. and Wilkins, A., (1995). Coloured overlays, visual discomfort, visual search and classroom reading. Journal of Research in Reading. 18 (1), 10-23

Chronicle, E., (1995). A Reply to Legg and Khalil. Cephalalgia. 15 (6), 537-537

Evans, BJW., Busby, A., Jeanes, R. and Wilkins, AJ., (1995). Optometric correlates of Meares-Irlen Syndrome: a matched group study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 15 (5), 481-487

Wilkins, A., (1995). Matters arising. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 15 (1), 4-4

Wilkins, A., (1994). Overlays for classroom and optometric use. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (1), 97-99

Wilkins, AJ., Evans, BJW., Brown, JA., Busby, AE., Wingfield, AE., Jeanes, RJ. and Bald, J., (1994). Double-masked placebo-controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (4), 365-370

Chen, EYH., Wilkins, AJ. and McKenna, PJ., (1994). Semantic memory is both impaired and anomalous in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine. 24 (01), 193-193

Wilkins, AJ., Evans, BJW., Brown, JA., Busby, AE., Wingfield, AE., Jeanes, RJ. and Bald, J., (1994). Double‐masked placebo‐controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (4), 365-370

Binnie, C., Harding, G., Richens, A. and Wilkins, A., (1994). Video games and epileptic seizures—a consensus statement. Seizure. 3 (4), 245-246

Maclachlan, A., Yale, S. and Wilkins, A., (1993). Open trial of subjective precision tinting: a follow-up of 55 patients. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 13 (2), 175-178

Wilkins, A., Milroy, R., Nimmo-Smith, I., Wright, A., Tyrrell, R., Holland, K., Martin, J., Bald, J., Yale, S., Miles, T. and Noakes, T., (1992). Preliminary observations concerning treatment of visual discomfort and associated perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (2), 257-263

Wilkins, AJ., Nimmo-Smith, I. and Jansons, JE., (1992). Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (3), 381-385

Smith, AP., Tyrrell, DAJ., Barrow, GI., Higgins, PG., Bull, S., Trickett, S. and Wilkins, AJ., (1992). The common cold, pattern sensitivity and contrast sensitivity. Psychological Medicine. 22 (02), 487-487

Wilkins, AJ., Nimmo Smith, I. and Jansons, JE., (1992). Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (3), 381-385

Wilkins, A. and Neary, C., (1991). Some visual, optometric and perceptual effects of coloured glasses. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 11 (2), 163-171

Chronicle, E. and Wilkins, A., (1991). Colour and visual discomfort in migraineurs. The Lancet. 338 (8771), 890-890

Wilkins, AJ. and Wilkinson, P., (1991). A tint to reduce eye-strain from fluorescent lighting? Preliminary observations. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 11 (2), 172-175

Wilkins, A., Peck, A. and Jordan, B., (1991). Visual discomfort in the classroom. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 7 (3), 326-340

Wilkins, A. and Clark, C., (1990). Modulation of light from fluorescent lamps. Lighting Research & Technology. 22 (2), 103-109

Hazell, J. and Wilkins, AJ., (1990). A contribution of fluorescent lighting to agoraphobia. Psychological Medicine. 20 (03), 591-591

Somazzi, L., Della Sala, S. and Wilkins, AJ., (1990). A simple test of contrast sensitivity in glaucoma. Italian Journal of Ophthalmology. 4 (4), 209-213

Neary, C. and Wilkins, AJ., (1989). Effects of Phosphor Persistence on Perception and the Control of Eye Movements. Perception. 18 (2), 257-264

Watts, FN. and Wilkins, AJ., (1989). The role of provocative visual stimuli in agoraphobia. Psychological Medicine. 19 (04), 875-875

Wilkins, A., Plant, G. and Huddy, A., (1989). NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO REHABILITATION OF A STROKE PATIENT. The Lancet. 333 (8628), 54-54

Wilkins, A., Nimmo-Smith, I., Slater, A. and Bedocs, L., (1989). Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eyestrain. Lighting Research & Technology. 21 (1), 11-18

Wilkins, AJ., Della Sala, S., Somazzi, L. and Nimmo-Smith, I., (1988). Age-related norms for the Cambridge Low Contrast Gratings, including details concerning their design and use. Clinical Vision Sciences. 2 (3), 201-212

Pelli, DG., Robson, JG. and Wilkins, AJ., (1988). The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity. Clinical Vision Sciences. 2 (3), 187-199

Wilkins, A., (1988). Visual distress in the office environment. Facilities. 6 (4), 9-12

Della Sala, S., Comi, G., Martinelli, V., Somazzi, L. and Wilkins, AJ., (1987). The rapid assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 50 (7), 840-846

Wilkins, A., Shallice, T. and McCarthy, R., (1987). Frontal lesions and sustained attention. Neuropsychologia. 25 (2), 359-365

Binnie, C., Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D., Smit, A. and Wilkins, A., (1987). Interactions of epileptiform EEG discharges and cognition. Epilepsy Research. 1 (4), 239-245

Nulty, DD., Wilkins, AJ. and Williams, JMG., (1987). Mood, pattern sensitivity and headache: a longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine. 17 (03), 705-705

WILKINS, AJ. and NIMMO-SMITH, MI., (1987). The clarity and comfort of printed text. Ergonomics. 30 (12), 1705-1720

Darby, C., Park, D., Smith, A. and Wilkins, A., (1986). EEG characteristics of epileptic pattern sensitivity and their relation to the nature of pattern stimulation and the effects of sodium valproate. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 63 (6), 517-525

Wilkins, A., (1986). What is visual discomfort?. Trends in Neurosciences. 9 (C), 343-346

Wilkins, AJ., (1986). Remembering to do things in the laboratory and everyday life. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 74 (S109), 109-112

Wilkins, AJ., (1986). On the manner in which sensory and cognitive processes contribute to epileptogenesis, and are disrupted by it. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 74 (S109), 91-96

Wilkins, A., (1986). Intermittent Illumination from Visual Display Units and Fluorescent Lighting Affects Movements of the Eyes Across Text. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 28 (1), 75-81

Bertoni, G., Somazzi, L., Blini, M., Della Sala, S. and Wilkins, A., (1986). Contrast sensitivity using a new forced-choice test. Bulletins et memoires de la Societe francaise d"ophtalmologie. 97, 140-145

Friedman, WJ. and Wilkins, AJ., (1985). Scale effects in memory for the timeof events. Memory & Cognition. 13 (2), 168-175

Della Sala, S., Bertoni, G., Somazzi, L., Stubbe, F. and Wilkins, AJ., (1985). Impaired contrast sensitivity in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy: a new technique for rapid assessment.. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 69 (2), 136-142

Binnie, C., Findlay, J. and Wilkins, A., (1985). Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in photosensitive epilepsy implied by the effects of moving patterns. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 61 (1), 1-6

Wilkins, A., (1985). Discomfort and visual displays. Displays. 6 (2), 101-103

Sala, S., Somazzi, L. and Wilkins, A., (1985). RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTING "BLURRED VISION" IN DISEASES OF PRIMARY VISUAL PATHWAYS. The Lancet. 326 (8462), 1015-1016

Binnie, C., Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, D., De Korte, R. and Wilkins, A., (1985). VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS AND RISK OF SEIZURES. The Lancet. 325 (8435), 991-991

WILKINS, A., NIMMO-SMITH, I., TAIT, A., McMANUS, C., SALA, SD., TILLEY, A., ARNOLD, K., BARRIE, M. and SCOTT, S., (1984). A NEUROLOGICAL BASIS FOR VISUAL DISCOMFORT. Brain. 107 (4), 989-1017

Wilkins, AJ. and Nimmo-Smith, I., (1984). ON THE REDUCTION OF EYE-STRAIN WHEN READING. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 4 (1), 53-59

AARTS, JHP., BINNIE, C., SMIT, AM. and WILKINS, AJ., (1984). SELECTIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT DURING FOCAL AND GENERALIZED EPILEPTIFORM EEG ACTIVITY. Brain. 107 (1), 293-308

Wilkins, AJ. and Nimmo-Smith, I., (1984). On the reduction of eye-strain when reading.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). 4 (1), 53-59

Wilkins, AJ., Zifkin, B., Andermann, F. and McGovern, E., (1982). Seizures induced by thinking. Annals of Neurology. 11 (6), 608-612

Wastell, DG., Wilkins, AJ. and Darby, CE., (1982). Self-induction of epileptic seizures by eye-closure. Spectral analysis of concomitant EEG.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 45 (12), 1151-1152

Wilkins, A., Binnie, C. and Darby, C., (1981). Interhemispheric differences in photosensitive epilepsy. I. Pattern sensitivity thresholds. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 52 (5), 461-468

Binnie, C., Wilkins, A. and de Korte, R., (1981). Interhemispheric differences in photosensitive epilepsy. II. intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 52 (5), 469-472

Wilkins, A., Binnie, C. and Darby, C., (1980). Visually-induced seizures. Progress in Neurobiology. 15 (2), 85-117

Binnie, C., Darby, C., de Korte, R., Veldhuizen, R. and Wilkins, A., (1980). EEG sensitivity to television: Effects of ambient lighting. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 50 (3-4), 329-331

Darby, CE., Korte, RA., Binnie, CD. and Wilkins, AJ., (1980). The Self-induction of Epileptic Seizures by Eye Closure. Epilepsia. 21 (1), 31-42

Binnie, CD., Darby, CE., De Korte, RA. and Wilkins, AJ., (1980). Self-induction of epileptic seizures by eyeclosure: incidence and recognition.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 43 (5), 386-389

Darby, CE., Wilkins, AJ., Binnie, CD. and De Korte, R., (1980). Routine testing for pattern sensitivity. Journal of Electrophysiological Technology. 6 (4), 202-210

WILKINS, AJ., DARBY, CE. and BINNIE, CD., (1979). NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PATTERN-SENSITIVE EPILEPSY. Brain. 102 (1), 1-25

Wilkins, A., Darby, C., Binnie, C., Stefansson, S., Jeavons, P. and Harding, G., (1979). Television epilepsy — The role of pattern. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 47 (2), 163-171

Wilkins, A. and Moscovitch, M., (1978). Selective impairment of semantic memory after temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia. 16 (1), 73-79

Stefansson, SB., Darby, CE., Wilkins, AJ., Binnie, CD., Marlton, AP., Smith, AT. and Stockley, AV., (1977). Television epilepsy and pattern sensitivity.. BMJ. 2 (6079), 88-90

Wilkins, AJ., Darby, CE. and Binnie, CD., (1977). Optical treatment of photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 43 (4)

WILKINS, AJ., ANDERMANN, F. and IVES, J., (1975). STRIPES, COMPLEX CELLS AND SEIZURES. Brain. 98 (3), 365-380

(1975). The EEG society. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 39 (4), 428-430

Wilkins, A. and Stewart, A., (1974). The time course of lateral asymmetries in visual perception of letters.. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 102 (5), 905-908

Wilkins, AJ., (1971). Conjoint frequency, category size, and categorization time. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 10 (4), 382-385

Book chapters (1)

Wilkins, A., (2012). Origins of Visual Stress. In: Visual Aspects of Dyslexia. 9780191744785

Conferences (18)

Wilkins, A., (2016). A physiological basis for visual discomfort: Application in lighting design

Penacchio, O., Wilkins, AJ., Otazu, X. and Harris, JM., (2016). Inhibitory function and its contribution to cortical hyperexcitability and visual discomfort as assessed by a computation model of cortical function

Wilkins, AJ. and Hibbard, PB., (2014). Discomfort and hypermetabolism

Atallah, P., Pelah, A. and Wilkins, A., (2012). Visual stress symptoms from stereoscopic television

Lehman, B., Wilkins, A., Berman, S., Poplawski, M. and Johnson Miller, N., (2011). Proposing measures of flicker in the low frequencies for lighting applications

Wang, Z., So, R., Chan, C. and Wilkins, A., (2011). Cortical neural response to visual navigation through a Virtual environment

Wilkins, A., Veitch, J. and Lehman, B., (2010). LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update

Jainta, S., Jaschinski, W. and Wilkins, AJ., (2010). Fixation disparity during reading is affected by periodic letter strokes within a word

Wilkins, AJ., Tang, P., Irabor, J., Baningham, L. and Coutts, L., (2008). Cortical haemodynamic response to coloured gratings

Wright, BN., Wilkins, AJ. and Zoukos, Y., (2007). The efficacy of intuitive overlays and precision tints in improving reading and visual search in patients with multiple sclerosis

Wilkins, AJ., Smith, J. and Beare, T., (2005). Reading speed and the self-similarity of word shape

EVANS, BJW., BUSBY, A., JEANES, R. and WILKINS, AJ., (1995). OPTOMETRIC CORRELATES OF MEARES-IRLEN SYNDROME - A MATCHED GROUP-STUDY

Wilkins, AJ., (1993). Health and efficiency in lighting practice

Wilkins, A., (1992). Treatment of visual discomfort and associated perceptual distortion using tinted spectacle lenses

Wilkins, A. and Tillotson, HT., (1991). Enhancement of highway maintenance management systems through optimization of critical deterioration levels

Wilkins, AJ. and Elgy, J., (1991). DEX. An expert system for the design of durable concrete

WILKINS, AJ., (1991). Visual display units versus visual computation

Wilkins, A., (1985). VISUAL DISCOMFORT AND CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAYS.

Grants and funding

2015

33% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in the future.

Cerium Visual Technologies Ltd

Advising on Educational Materials

Crossbow Education Ltd

67% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in

Technology STrategy Board

67% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in the future.

Technology STrategy Board

33% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in

Cerium Visual Technologies Ltd

Contact

arnold@essex.ac.uk

Location:

3.713, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

MSc project supervision