People

Prof Arnold Wilkins

Emeritus Professor
Department of Psychology
Prof Arnold Wilkins

Publications

Journals (161)

(2018). Chromaticity separation and the alpha response. Neuropsychologia. 108

(2017). Visual discomfort and flicker. Vision Research. 138

(2017). Risk of bias in assessing Risk of Bias. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 37 (1)

(2017). Discomfort from urban scenes: Metabolic consequences. Landscape and Urban Planning. 160

(2017). A Delphi study to develop practical diagnostic guidelines for visual stress (pattern-related visual stress). Journal of Optometry. 10 (3)

(2016). Atypical Sensory behaviours in children with Tourette’s Syndrome and in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 56

(2016). Judging the Intensity of Emotional Expression in Faces: the Effects of Colored Tints on Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research. 9 (4)

(2016). Habitual wearers of colored lenses adapt more rapidly to the color changes the lenses produce. Vision Research. 125

(2016). The effect of viewing distance on responses to the pattern glare test. Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 99 (1)

(2016). The relationship between visual function and performance in rifle shooting for athletes with vision impairment. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2 (1)

(2015). Cortical excitability and the shape of the haemodynamic response. NeuroImage. 111

(2015). Assessment of trypophobia and an analysis of its visual precipitation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 68 (11)

(2015). Pattern glare: the effects of contrast and color. Frontiers in Psychology. 6 (OCT)

(2015). Visual discomfort and the spatial distribution of Fourier energy. Vision Research. 108

(2015). On the clarity of the musical stave. Psychology of Music. 43 (6)

(2015). Visual Performance and the Use of Colored Filters in Children Who Are Deaf. Optometry and Vision Science. 92 (6)

(2015). Identifying visual stress during a routine eye examination. Journal of Optometry. 8 (2)

(2014). Designing to Mitigate Effects of Flicker in LED Lighting: Reducing risks to health and safety. IEEE Power Electronics Magazine. 1 (3)

(2014). Visual performance and ocular abnormalities in deaf children and young adults: a literature review. Acta Ophthalmologica. 92 (4)

(2014). Opinion: CFF is a seductive but misleading concept. Lighting Research & Technology. 46 (4)

(2013). Discomfort and the cortical haemodynamic response to coloured gratings. Vision Research. 89

(2013). Fear of Holes. Psychological Science. 24 (10)

(2013). Evidence for elevated cortical hyperexcitability and its association with out-of-body experiences in the non-clinical population: New findings from a pattern-glare task. Cortex. 49 (3)

(2013). Signs of increased cortical hyperexcitability selectively associated with spontaneous anomalous bodily experiences in a nonclinical population. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 18 (6)

(2013). Flicker can be perceived during saccades at frequencies in excess of 1 kHz. Lighting Research & Technology. 45 (1)

(2013). Accommodation to Uncomfortable Patterns. Perception. 42 (2)

(2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Cephalalgia. 32 (8)

(2012). Cortical hyperexcitability in migraine and aversion to patterns. Cephalalgia. 32 (3)

(2012). Accommodation, Pattern Glare, and Coloured Overlays. Perception. 41 (12)

(2012). Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. ISRN Neurology. 2012

(2012). Methodology of photic stimulation revisited: Updated European algorithm for visual stimulation in the EEG laboratory. Epilepsia. 53 (1)

(2011). Asymmetry of visual function in migraine with aura: Correlation with lateralisation of headache and aura. Cephalalgia. 31 (2)

(2011). Proposing measures of flicker in the low frequencies for lighting applications. LEUKOS - Journal of Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 7 (3)

(2011). fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine. Cephalalgia. 31 (8)

(2010). Visual stress, its treatment with spectral filters, and its relationship to visually induced motion sickness. Applied Ergonomics. 41 (4)

(2010). Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading. Journal of Vision. 10 (13)

(2010). Pattern-Related Visual Stress, Chromaticity, and Accommodation. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science. 51 (12)

(2010). Potential of wind turbines to elicit seizures under various meteorological conditions. Epilepsia. 51 (7)

(2010). Visual Discomfort and Natural Image Statistics. Perception. 39 (7)

(2010). Periodic letter strokes within a word affect fixation disparity during reading.. Journal of vision. 10 (13)

(2009). Case Report: Color as a Therapeutic Intervention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (5)

(2009). Typography for children may be inappropriately designed. Journal of Research in Reading. 32 (4)

(2009). Lighting and discomfort in the classroom. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 29 (1)

(2008). Uncomfortable Images in Art and Nature. Perception. 37 (7)

(2008). Colored overlays enhance visual perceptual performance in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2 (3)

(2008). Wind turbines, flicker, and photosensitive epilepsy: Characterizing the flashing that may precipitate seizures and optimizing guidelines to prevent them. Epilepsia. 49 (6)

(2007). Stripes within Words Affect Reading. Perception. 36 (12)

(2007). Spectral filters can improve reading and visual search in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology. 254 (12)

(2007). Memory for the color of non-monochromatic lights. Color Research & Application. 32 (1)

(2007). How many colours are necessary to increase the reading speed of children with visual stress? A comparison of two systems. Journal of Research in Reading. 30 (3)

(2007). Prevention of visual stress and migraine with precision spectral filters. Drug Development Research. 68 (7)

(2006). The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36 (4)

(2006). Near infrared spectroscopy as a noninvasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine?. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 578

(2006). Near infrared spectroscopy as a non-invasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine?. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 578

(2006). The Effect of Colored Lenses on the Visual Evoked Response in Children With Visual Stress. Optometry and Vision Science. 83 (5)

(2005). Increasing Reading Speed by Using Colours: Issues concerning Reliability and Specificity, and Their Theoretical and Practical Implications. Perception. 34 (1)

(2005). Photic- and Pattern-induced Seizures: Expert Consensus of the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia. 46 (9)

(2005). Characterizing the Patterned Images That Precipitate Seizures and Optimizing Guidelines To Prevent Them. Epilepsia. 46 (8)

(2005). Photic- and Pattern-induced Seizures: A Review for the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia. 46 (9)

(2005). How precise do precision tints have to be and how many are necessary?. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 25 (3)

(2004). Physiology of Human Photosensitivity. Epilepsia. 45 (s1)

(2004). Treatment of Photosensitivity. Epilepsia. 45 (s1)

(2004). Visual stress theory and its application to reading and reading tests. Journal of Research in Reading. 27 (2)

(2004). How big does a coloured overlay have to be?. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 24 (1)

(2002). Tinted Spectacles and Visually Sensitive Migraine. Cephalalgia. 22 (9)

(2002). Randomised controlled trial of the effect of coloured overlays on the rate of reading of people with specific learning difficulties. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (1)

(2002). Optometric function in visually sensitive migraine before and after treatment with tinted spectacles. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (2)

(2002). Characterizing the flashing television images that precipitate seizures. SMPTE Journal. 111 (7-8)

(2002). Reading at a distance: Implications for the design of text in children's big books. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 72 (2)

(2002). Characterizing the Flashing Television Images that Precipitate Seizures. SMPTE Journal. 111 (6-7)

(2002). Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (5)

(2002). Coloured overlays in schools: orthoptic and optometric findings. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 22 (2)

(2001). The influence of tinted lenses upon ocular accommodation. Vision Research. 41 (9)

(2001). A colorizer for use in determining an optimal ophthalmic tint. Color Research & Application. 26 (3)

(2001). Spatiotemporal visual function in tinted lens wearers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 42 (3)

(2001). Coloured overlays and their benefit for reading. Journal of Research in Reading. 24 (1)

(2000). Typography in children's reading schemes may be suboptimal: Evidence from measures of reading rate. Journal of Research in Reading. 23 (3)

(1999). A review of the management of 323 consecutive patients seen in a specific learning difficulties clinic. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 19 (6)

(1999). Treatment of photosensitive epilepsy using coloured glasses. Seizure. 8 (8)

(1999). Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 19 (4)

(1999). Photic Stimulation: Standardization of Screening Methods. Epilepsia. 40 (s4)

(1999). Medical technology assessment photic stimulation - Standardization of screening methods. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 29 (4)

(1999). Coloured Overlays, Text, and Texture. Perception. 28 (5)

(1998). Visually induced seizures not caused by flicker (intermittent light stimulation).. Advances in neurology. 75

(1997). Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading. British Journal of Psychology. 88 (4)

(1997). What Brings Intentions to Mind? An In Situ Study of Prospective Memory. Memory. 5 (4)

(1997). Neuropsychological correlates of sustained attention in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 24 (3)

(1997). Ecstatic seizures induced by television. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 63 (2)

(1997). Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading.. British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953). 88

(1996). A preliminary investigation into the aetiology of Meares-Irlen syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 16 (4)

(1996). Rate of Reading Test(R): Its reliability, and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS. 16 (6)

(1996). Gratings That Induce Perceptual Distortions Mask Superimposed Targets. Perception. 25 (6)

(1996). Rate of Reading Test® : Its reliability, and its validity in the assessment of the effects of coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 16 (6)

(1995). Thresholds for Detection of a Target Against a Background Grating Suggest Visual Dysfunction in Migraine With Aura But Not Migraine Without Aura. Cephalalgia. 15 (2)

(1995). Coloured overlays, visual discomfort, visual search and classroom reading. Journal of Research in Reading. 18 (1)

(1995). A Reply to Legg and Khalil. Cephalalgia. 15 (6)

(1995). Optometric correlates of Meares-Irlen Syndrome: a matched group study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 15 (5)

(1995). Matters arising. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 15 (1)

(1994). Overlays for classroom and optometric use. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (1)

(1994). Double-masked placebo-controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (4)

(1994). Semantic memory is both impaired and anomalous in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine. 24 (01)

(1994). Double‐masked placebo‐controlled trial of precision spectral filters in children who use coloured overlays. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 14 (4)

(1994). Video games and epileptic seizures—a consensus statement. Seizure. 3 (4)

(1993). Open trial of subjective precision tinting: a follow-up of 55 patients. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 13 (2)

(1992). Preliminary observations concerning treatment of visual discomfort and associated perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (2)

(1992). Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (3)

(1992). The common cold, pattern sensitivity and contrast sensitivity. Psychological Medicine. 22 (02)

(1992). Colorimeter for the intuitive manipulation of hue and saturation and its role in the study of perceptual distortion. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 12 (3)

(1991). Some visual, optometric and perceptual effects of coloured glasses. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 11 (2)

(1991). Colour and visual discomfort in migraineurs. The Lancet. 338 (8771)

(1991). A tint to reduce eye-strain from fluorescent lighting? Preliminary observations. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 11 (2)

(1991). Visual discomfort in the classroom. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 7 (3)

(1990). Modulation of light from fluorescent lamps. Lighting Research & Technology. 22 (2)

(1990). A contribution of fluorescent lighting to agoraphobia. Psychological Medicine. 20 (03)

(1990). A simple test of contrast sensitivity in glaucoma. Italian Journal of Ophthalmology. 4 (4)

(1989). Effects of Phosphor Persistence on Perception and the Control of Eye Movements. Perception. 18 (2)

(1989). The role of provocative visual stimuli in agoraphobia. Psychological Medicine. 19 (04)

(1989). NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO REHABILITATION OF A STROKE PATIENT. The Lancet. 333 (8628)

(1989). Fluorescent lighting, headaches and eyestrain. Lighting Research & Technology. 21 (1)

(1988). Age-related norms for the Cambridge Low Contrast Gratings, including details concerning their design and use. Clinical Vision Sciences. 2 (3)

(1988). The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity. Clinical Vision Sciences. 2 (3)

(1988). Visual distress in the office environment. Facilities. 6 (4)

(1987). The rapid assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 50 (7)

(1987). Frontal lesions and sustained attention. Neuropsychologia. 25 (2)

(1987). Interactions of epileptiform EEG discharges and cognition. Epilepsy Research. 1 (4)

(1987). Mood, pattern sensitivity and headache: a longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine. 17 (03)

(1987). The clarity and comfort of printed text. Ergonomics. 30 (12)

(1986). EEG characteristics of epileptic pattern sensitivity and their relation to the nature of pattern stimulation and the effects of sodium valproate. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 63 (6)

(1986). What is visual discomfort?. Trends in Neurosciences. 9 (C)

(1986). Remembering to do things in the laboratory and everyday life. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 74 (S109)

(1986). On the manner in which sensory and cognitive processes contribute to epileptogenesis, and are disrupted by it. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 74 (S109)

(1986). Intermittent Illumination from Visual Display Units and Fluorescent Lighting Affects Movements of the Eyes Across Text. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 28 (1)

(1986). Contrast sensitivity using a new forced-choice test. Bulletins et memoires de la Societe francaise d"ophtalmologie. 97

(1985). Scale effects in memory for the timeof events. Memory & Cognition. 13 (2)

(1985). Impaired contrast sensitivity in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy: a new technique for rapid assessment.. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 69 (2)

(1985). Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in photosensitive epilepsy implied by the effects of moving patterns. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 61 (1)

(1985). Discomfort and visual displays. Displays. 6 (2)

(1985). RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTING "BLURRED VISION" IN DISEASES OF PRIMARY VISUAL PATHWAYS. The Lancet. 326 (8462)

(1985). VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS AND RISK OF SEIZURES. The Lancet. 325 (8435)

(1984). A NEUROLOGICAL BASIS FOR VISUAL DISCOMFORT. Brain. 107 (4)

(1984). ON THE REDUCTION OF EYE-STRAIN WHEN READING. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 4 (1)

(1984). SELECTIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT DURING FOCAL AND GENERALIZED EPILEPTIFORM EEG ACTIVITY. Brain. 107 (1)

(1984). On the reduction of eye-strain when reading.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). 4 (1)

(1982). Seizures induced by thinking. Annals of Neurology. 11 (6)

(1982). Self-induction of epileptic seizures by eye-closure. Spectral analysis of concomitant EEG.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 45 (12)

(1981). Interhemispheric differences in photosensitive epilepsy. I. Pattern sensitivity thresholds. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 52 (5)

(1981). Interhemispheric differences in photosensitive epilepsy. II. intermittent photic stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 52 (5)

(1980). Visually-induced seizures. Progress in Neurobiology. 15 (2)

(1980). EEG sensitivity to television: Effects of ambient lighting. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 50 (3-4)

(1980). The Self-induction of Epileptic Seizures by Eye Closure. Epilepsia. 21 (1)

(1980). Self-induction of epileptic seizures by eyeclosure: incidence and recognition.. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 43 (5)

(1980). Routine testing for pattern sensitivity. Journal of Electrophysiological Technology. 6 (4)

(1979). NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PATTERN-SENSITIVE EPILEPSY. Brain. 102 (1)

(1979). Television epilepsy — The role of pattern. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 47 (2)

(1978). Selective impairment of semantic memory after temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia. 16 (1)

(1977). Television epilepsy and pattern sensitivity.. BMJ. 2 (6079)

(1977). Optical treatment of photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 43 (4)

(1975). STRIPES, COMPLEX CELLS AND SEIZURES. Brain. 98 (3)

(1975). The EEG society. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 39 (4)

(1974). The time course of lateral asymmetries in visual perception of letters.. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 102 (5)

(1971). Conjoint frequency, category size, and categorization time. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 10 (4)

Conferences (12)

(2016). Inhibitory function and its contribution to cortical hyperexcitability and visual discomfort as assessed by a computation model of cortical function

(2014). Discomfort and hypermetabolism

(2012). Visual stress symptoms from stereoscopic television

(2011). Cortical neural response to visual navigation through a Virtual environment

(2010). LED lighting flicker and potential health concerns: IEEE standard PAR1789 update

(2010). Fixation disparity during reading is affected by periodic letter strokes within a word

(2008). Cortical haemodynamic response to coloured gratings

(2007). The efficacy of intuitive overlays and precision tints in improving reading and visual search in patients with multiple sclerosis

(2005). Reading speed and the self-similarity of word shape

(1995). OPTOMETRIC CORRELATES OF MEARES-IRLEN SYNDROME - A MATCHED GROUP-STUDY

(1992). Treatment of visual discomfort and associated perceptual distortion using tinted spectacle lenses

(1985). VISUAL DISCOMFORT AND CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAYS.

Chapters (1)

(2012). Origins of Visual Stress. Visual Aspects of Dyslexia. Visual Aspects of Dyslexia. 9780191744785

Grants and funding

2015

33% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in the future.

Cerium Visual Technologies Ltd

Advising on Educational Materials

Crossbow Education Ltd

67% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in

Technology STrategy Board

67% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in the future.

Technology STrategy Board

33% - To develop and launch the next generation of colorimetry technology and embed the capability to support and enhance it in

Cerium Visual Technologies Ltd

Contact

arnold@essex.ac.uk

Location:

3.713, Colchester Campus