People

Professor Monika Schmid

Head of Department - Professor (R)
Department of Language and Linguistics
Professor Monika Schmid
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 872089

  • Location

    4.326, Colchester Campus

  • Academic support hours

    Wednedsay, 12-1; Thursday, 9-10 or by appointment

Profile

Biography

Monika's main topic of research is the loss of the native language, also called First Language Attrition. Please refer to her personal websiteon this topic at https://languageattrition.org. Monika received her PhD in English Linguistics from the University of Duesseldorf, Germany, in 2000, for a PhD thesis on first language attrition among German-Jewish refugees in the UK and the US. Her thesis was published with John Benjamins Publishing Co. in 2002 under the title First Language Attrition, Use and Maintenance: The case of German Jews in Anglophone countries. She subsequently held positions as lecturer at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (2000-2007) and as Senior Lecturer (2007-2010) and Professor of English Language (2010-2015) at the University of Groningen. Her research interests focus on bilingual development and, in particular, on change, deterioration and stability in the native language of migrants who become dominant in the language of the environment (this process is called first language attrition). Her recent work focuses on the impact of personal factors such as the age at migration and working memory capacities on these processes. Together with Barbara Kopke of the University of Toulouse she has organised a series of conferences and conference panels and edited a number of books and special issues of journals on this topic. Monika has been the PI on a number of projects funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG), the Dutch Organisation for Research (NWO) and the Economic and Social Sciences Research Council (ESRC).

Qualifications

  • Dipl. Literaturuebersetzen (translation of literature), University of Duesseldorf, Germany, 1996

  • PhD English Linguistics, University of Duesseldorf, Germany, 2000

Appointments

University of Essex

  • Professor of Linguistics, Language and Linguistics, University of Essex (1/7/2013 - present)

Other academic

  • Professor of English Language, English Department, University of Groningen (1/7/2010 - 1/8/2017)

  • Senior Lecturer in English Language, English Department, University of Groningen (1/4/2007 - 30/6/2010)

  • Lecturer in English Language, English Department, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (1/8/2000 - 31/3/2007)

Research and professional activities

Research interests

First language attrition

Key words: attrition, L2-to-L1 transfer
Open to supervise

Bilingual development

Key words: Bilingual development, age effects in language acquisition, age effects in language attrition
Open to supervise

Cognitive impacts of bilingualism

Key words: bilingual cognition, executive function, bilingual decision making
Open to supervise

Research methods in bilingual development

Key words: statistics, quantitative methods
Open to supervise

Psycho- and neurolinguistics

Key words: psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, EEG, ERP, eyetracking, bilingualism
Open to supervise

Factors in bilingual development

Key words: age, input, motivation, bilingualism
Open to supervise

Conferences and presentations

When is a bilingual an attriter? – Bilingualism as a two-way street

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, Conference on Multilingualism, Groningen, Netherlands, 7/11/2017

Language attrition across the lifespan

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, 14th International Congress of the Study of Child Language (IASCL 14), Lyon, France, 21/7/2017

How does age of onset affect L1 attrition in bilinguals?

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, Heritage Language Acquisition, Tromsø, Norway, 19/9/2016

Persecution, identity and language

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, 20th Congress on Frisian Philology, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 10/12/2014

When your language is your only passport: Language as an indicator of origin

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, Einar Haugen Lecture, Centre for Multilingualism, Oslo, Norway, 22/9/2014

“I always thought I was a German – it was Hitler who taught me I was a Jew.” National-socialist persecution, identity, and the German language.

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, Sprache(n) im Exil – Language(s) in Exile, Hamburg, Germany, 19/2/2014

First language attrition as a window to constraints on bilingual development

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, 9th International Symposium of Bilingualism, Nanyang, China, 13/6/2013

Language Attrition

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, Winter School on Multilingualism across the Lifespan, Fribourg, Switzerland, 3/2/2012

The discrepancy between L1 and L2: a perspective from L1 attrition

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, 19th International Symposium on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, Thessaloniki, Greece, 3/4/2009

Development of linguistic incompetence? On L1 attrition and the linguistic system.

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, 18th Conference of the European Second Language Association (EuroSLA 18), EuroSLA, France, 4/9/2008

Problems and challenges for language attrition research

Invited presentation, Keynote presentation, The Neurocognition of Language and Memory: Retention, Attrition, and Aging, Center for the Brain Basis of Cognition, Washington D.C., United States, 3/4/2008

Teaching and supervision

Current teaching responsibilities

  • Modern Languages Project (LA059)

  • Language Dissertation (LA069)

  • Language Attrition (LG507)

  • Professional Development for Research Students (LG595)

  • Project: Linguistics (LG831)

Previous supervision

Tugba Karayayla
Tugba Karayayla
Thesis title: Turkish as an Immigrant and Heritage Language in the Uk: Effects of Exposure and Age At Onset of Bilingualism on Grammatical and Lexical Development of the First Language
Degree subject: Applied Linguistics
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 5/7/2018
Ting Yan Rachel Kan
Ting Yan Rachel Kan
Thesis title: Development of Cantonese as a Heritage Language in Children: Experiments in Phonology and Morphosyntax
Degree subject: Linguistics
Degree type: Doctor of Philosophy
Awarded date: 21/6/2018

Publications

Journal articles (50)

Karayayla, T. and Schmid, MS., (2019). First Language Attrition as a Function of Age at Onset of Bilingualism: First Language Attainment of Turkish–English Bilinguals in the United Kingdom. Language Learning. 69 (1), 106-142

Schmid, M. and Kan, TYR., (2019). Development of tonal discrimination in young heritage speakers of Cantonese. Journal of Phonetics. 73, 40-54

Schmid, M. and Karayayla, T., (2019). The role of age, attitude and use for first language development and attrition in Turkish-English bilinguals. Language Learning

Lahmann, C., Steinkrauss, R. and Schmid, M., (2019). Measuring linguistic complexity in long-term L2 speakers of English and L1 attriters of German. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 29 (2), 173-191

De Leeuw, E., Tusha, A. and Schmid, MS., (2018). Individual phonological attrition in Albanian–English late bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 21 (2), 278-295

Schmid, MS. and Yilmaz, G., (2018). Predictors of language dominance: an integrated analysis of first language attrition and second language acquisition in late bilinguals. Frontiers in Psychology. 9 (AUG), 1306-

Lahmann, C., Steinkrauss, R. and Schmid, MS., (2017). Speed, breakdown, and repair: An investigation of fluency in long-term second-language speakers of English. International Journal of Bilingualism. 21 (2), 228-242

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2017). The relevance of first language attrition to theories of bilingual development. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 7 (6), 637-667

Bergmann, C., Nota, A., Sprenger, SA. and Schmid, MS., (2017). Erratum to “L2 immersion causes non-native-like L1 pronunciation in German attriters” [J. Phon. 58 (2016) 71–86]. Journal of Phonetics. 65, 160-160

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2017). When is a bilingual an attriter? Response to the commentaries.. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 7 (6), 763-770

Schmid, MS., (2016). First language attrition. Language Teaching. 49 (02), 186-212

Keijzer, MCJ. and Schmid, MS., (2016). Individual differences in cognitive control advantages of elderly late Dutch-English bilinguals. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 6 (1-2), 64-85

Bergmann, C., Nota, A., Sprenger, SA. and Schmid, MS., (2016). L2 immersion causes non-native-like L1 pronunciation in German attriters. Journal of Phonetics. 58, 71-86

Lahmann, C., Steinkrauss, R. and Schmid, MS., (2016). Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers’ Oral Proficiency. Language Learning. 66 (2), 354-385

Meulman, N., Wieling, M., Sprenger, SA., Stowe, LA. and Schmid, MS., (2015). Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them. PloS One. 10 (12), creators-Schmid=3AMonika_S=3A=3A

Bergmann, C., Meulman, N., Stowe, LA., Sprenger, SA. and Schmid, MS., (2015). Prolonged L2 immersion engenders little change in morphosyntactic processing of bilingual natives. NeuroReport. 26 (17), 1065-1070

Bergmann, C., Sprenger, SA. and Schmid, MS., (2015). The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency. Acta Psychologica. 161, 25-35

Yılmaz, G. and Schmid, MS., (2015). Second language development in a migrant context: Turkish community in the Netherlands. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2015 (236), 101-132

Schmid, MS. and Jarvis, S., (2014). Lexical access and lexical diversity in first language attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 17 (04), 729-748

Meulman, N., Stowe, LA., Sprenger, SA., Bresser, M. and Schmid, MS., (2014). An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?. Frontiers in Psychology. 5 (SEP), 1072-

Schmid, MS., Gilbers, S. and Nota, A., (2014). Ultimate attainment in late second language acquisition: Phonetic and grammatical challenges in advanced Dutch–English bilingualism. Second Language Research. 30 (2), 129-157

Schmid, MS. and Hopp, H., (2014). Comparing foreign accent in L1 attrition and L2 acquisition: Range and rater effects. Language Testing. 31 (3), 367-388

Schmid, MS., (2014). The Debate on Maturational Constraints in Bilingual Development: A Perspective from First-Language Attrition. Language Acquisition. 21 (4), 386-410

Schmid, MS., Köpke, B. and de Bot, K., (2013). Language attrition as a complex, non-linear development. International Journal of Bilingualism. 17 (6), 675-682

Schmid, MS., (2013). First language attrition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 3 (1), 94-115

(2013). First Language Attrition, 13-36

Loerts, H., Wieling, M. and Schmid, MS., (2013). Neuter is not Common in Dutch: Eye Movements Reveal Asymmetrical Gender Processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 42 (6), 551-570

Loerts, H., Stowe, LA. and Schmid, MS., (2013). Predictability speeds up the re-analysis process: An ERP investigation of gender agreement and cloze probability. Journal of Neurolinguistics. 26 (5), 561-580

Hopp, H. and Schmid, MS., (2013). Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition: The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism. Applied Psycholinguistics. 34 (02), 361-394

HOPP, HOLGER. and SCHMID, MONIKAS., (2013). Perceived foreign accent in first language attrition and second language acquisition: The impact of age of acquisition and bilingualism—ERRATUM. Applied Psycholinguistics. 34 (2), 417-417

Schmid, MS., (2013). First language attrition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science. 4 (2), 117-123

Schmid, MS., (2013). First language attrition: state of the discipline and future directions. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 3 (1), 94-115

Schmid, MS., (2012). The impact of age and exposure on bilingual development in international adoptees and family migrants. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 2 (2), 177-208

Verspoor, M., Schmid, MS. and Xu, X., (2012). A dynamic usage based perspective on L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing. 21 (3), 239-263

Yilmaz, G. and Schmid, MS., (2012). L1 accessibility among Turkish-Dutch bilinguals. The Mental Lexicon. 7 (3), 249-274

Schmid, MS. and Mehotcheva, T., (2012). Foreign language attrition. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics. 1 (1), 102-124

(2011). Second language acquisition and attrition. Language, Interaction and Acquisition. 2 (2), 185-196

(2011). L’attrition de la première langue en tant que phénomène psycholinguistique. Language, Interaction and Acquisition. 2 (2), 197-220

De Leeuw, E., Schmid, MS. and Mennen, I., (2010). The effects of contact on native language pronunciation in an L2 migrant setting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 13 (1), 33-40

Schmid, MS., (2010). Languages at play: The relevance of L1 attrition to the study of bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 13 (1), 1-7

Schmid, MS. and Fägersten, KB., (2010). Disfluency Markers in L1 Attrition. Language Learning. 60 (4), 753-791

Schmid, MS. and Dusseldorp, E., (2010). Innovative and quantitative methods for bilingualism research. Second Language Research. 26 (1), 5-11

Schmid, MS. and Dusseldorp, E., (2010). Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition: the impact of extralinguistic factors. Second Language Research. 26 (1), 125-160

Schmid, MS. and Keijzer, M., (2009). First language attrition and reversion among older migrants. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2009 (200), 83-101

Schmid, MS., (2009). On L1 attrition and the linguistic system. EUROSLA Yearbook. 9, 212-244

Schmid, MS. and de Leeuw, E., (2008). Language Attrition Research Network. International Journal of Applied Linguistics.. 18 (1), 117-117

Keijzer, M. and Schmid, MS., (2005). Building Language Attrition Research. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen. 74, 201-207

Schmid, MS., (2004). Identity and First Language Attrition: A Historical Approach. Estudios de Sociolingüística: Linguas, Sociedades e Culturas. 5 (1), 41-58

Schmid, MS., (2004). First language attrition: The methodology revised. International Journal of Bilingualism. 8 (3), 239-255

Schmid, MS. and Stein, D., (1996). Subjektivierung in markierter Wortstellung im Englischen. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik. 26 (2), 97-113

Books (9)

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Language Attrition. Oxford Handbooks. 0198793596. 9780198793595

Patrick, PL., Schmid, MS. and Zwaan, K., (2018). Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin Current Perspectives and New Directions. Springer. 3319790013. 9783319790015

Schmid, MS., Berends, SM., Bergmann, C., Brouwer, SM., Meulman, N., Seton, B., Sprenger, S. and Stowe, L., (2015). Designing Research on Bilingual Development Behavioral and Neurolinguistic Experiments. Springer. 3319115294. 9783319115290

(2013). Engineering the Human. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 364235095X. 9783642350955

Schmid, MS., (2011). Language Attrition. Cambridge University Press. 0521759935. 9780511852046

(2007). Language Attrition: Theoretical Perspectives. Benjamins. 9027241449. 9789027241443

Schmid, MS., (2002). First Language Attrition, Use and Maintenance. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 9781588111906

Schmid, MS., (1999). Translating the Elusive. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 9781556197956

(1998). Historical Linguistics 1997. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 9781556198809

Book chapters (23)

Yılmaz, G. and Schmid, MS., (2018). Chapter 11. First language attrition and bilingualism. In: Studies in Bilingualism. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 225- 250. 9789027200167

Keijzer, MCJ. and Schmid, MS., (2017). Chapter 5. Individual differences in cognitive control advantages of elderly late Dutch-English bilinguals. In: Studies in Bilingualism. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 77- 98. 9789027241962

Steinkrauss, R. and Schmid, MS., (2016). Entrenchment and Language Attrition. In: Entrenchment and the Psychology of Language Learning: How We Reorganize and Adapt Linguistic Knowledge. Editors: Schmid, H-J., . de Gruyter Mouton. 367- 383. 3110341301. 9783110341423

Bregtje, S. and Schmid, MS., (2016). Multi-competence and first language attrition. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Multi-Competence. Editors: Cook, V. and Wei, L., . Cambridge University Press. 338- 354. 9781107059214

Schmid, MS., Steinkrauss, R. and Lahmann, C., (2014). Sprachverlust im Kontext von Migration und Asyl. In: Sprache(n) im Exil. Editors: Bischoff, D., Gabriel, C. and Kilchmann, E., . Edition text + kritik. 121- 131. 978-3-86916-374-1

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2013). Second language acquisition and attrition. In: First Language Attrition. Editors: Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., . John Benjamins. 1- 12. 9789027202673

Schmid, MS., (2012). Attrition and Multilingualism. In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Editors: Chapelle, CA., . Wiley Blackwell. 9781405198431

Schmid, MS. and Lowie, W., (2011). Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos. In Honor of Kees de Bot. In: Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos. Editors: Schmid, MS. and Lowie, W., . John Benjamins. 155- 176. 9789027241825

Schmid, MS., Verspoor, M. and MacWhinney, B., (2011). Coding and extracting data. In: Language Learning & Language Teaching. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 39- 54. 9789027219992

Larsen-Freeman, D., Schmid, MS. and Lowie, W., (2011). Introduction: From structure to chaos. In: Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos. In Honor of Kees de Bot. Editors: Schmid, MS. and Lowie, W., . John Benjamins. 1- 12. 9789027241825

Schmid, MS., (2011). Contact x time: External factors and variability in L1 attrition. In: Modeling Bilingualism: From structure to chaos. In Honor of Kees de Bot. Editors: Schmid, MS. and Lowie, WM., . John Benjamins. 155- 176. 9789027241825

Schmid, MS., (2010). Language Attrition and Identity. In: Culture and Neural Frames of Cognition and Communication. Editors: Han, S. and Pöppel, E., . Springer. 185- 198. 9783642154225

de Bot, K., (2009). Language Development Over the Lifespan. In: Language Development Over the Lifespan. Routledge. 171- 188. 0203880935. 9780203880937

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2009). L1 attrition and the mental lexicon. In: The Bilingual Mental Lexicon Interdisciplinary Approaches. Editors: Pavlenko, A., . Multilingual Matters. 209- 238. 9781847691248

Schmid, MS., (2008). Use it or lose it?: Language use, language attitudes, and language proficiency among German speakers in Vancouver. In: German Diasporic Experiences: Identity, Migration, and Loss. 491- 502. 1554580277. 9781554580279

Schmid, MS. and de Bot, K., (2008). Language Attrition. In: The Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 210- 234. 0631228993. 9780631228998

Schmid, MS., (2007). The role of L1 use for L1 attrition. In: Language Attrition: Theoretical perspectives. Editors: Köpke, B., Schmid, MS., Keijzer, M. and Dostert, S., . John Benjamins. 135- 153. 9789027241443

Ben-Rafael, M. and Schmid, MS., (2007). Language attrition and ideology: Two groups of immigrants in Israel. In: Studies in Bilingualism. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 205- 226. 9789027241443

Schmid, MS. and Köpke, B., (2007). Bilingualism and attrition. In: Language Attrition: Theoretical perspectives. Editors: Köpke, B., Schmid, MS., Keijzer, M. and Dostert, S., . John Benjamins. 1- 7. 9789027241443

Köpke, B. and Schmid, MS., (2004). Language attrition. In: First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues. Editors: Schmid, MS., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M. and Weilemar, L., . John Benjamins

Schmid, MS., (2004). Language attrition research: An annotated bibliography. In: First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues. Editors: Schmid, MS., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M. and Weilemar, L., . John Benjamins

Schmid, MS., (2004). A new blueprint for language attrition research. In: First Language Attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues. Editors: Schmid, MS., Köpke, B., Keijzer, M. and Weilemar, L., . John Benjamins

Schmid, MS., (2002). Persecution and identity conflicts. In: Us and Others. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 341- 356. 9781588112057

Grants and funding

2017

Issues of Attrition and Transmission in Heritage Language Development

The Royal Society

2015

Language Attrition Website

Economic & Social Research Council

Language, Communication and Alzheimer's Disease

Economic & Social Research Council

2014

First Language Attrition Seminar Series

Economic & Social Research Council

Contact

mschmid@essex.ac.uk
+44 (0) 1206 872089

Location:

4.326, Colchester Campus

Academic support hours:

Wednedsay, 12-1; Thursday, 9-10 or by appointment