Academic Staff

Professor Paul Hibbard

Staff positionProfessor
Telephone01206 873516

Paul Hibbard studied Psychology at University College London, where he gained a BSc and PhD . He then worked at the University of Surrey as a research fellow, and as a lecturer, then senior lecturer, at the University of St Andrews. He joined the department of Psychology in 2013.

Research interests
  • 3D shape
  • binocular vision
  • image statistics
  • visual discomfort


Curran W., Benton C.P., Harris J.M., Hibbard P.B. & Beattie L. (2016) Adapting to time: Duration channels do not mediate human time perception, Journal of Vision, 16(5):4,

Hunter D.W. & Hibbard, P.B (2016) Ideal binocular disparity detectors learned using Independent Subspace Analysis on binocular natural image pairs, PLoS ONE, 11(3): e0150117.

Hibbard, P.B., Goutcher, R. & Hunter, D.W. (2016) Encoding and estimation of first- and second-order binocular disparity in natural images, Vision Research, 120, 108-120,

O'Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (in press) Visual processing in migraine, Cephalalgia, doi:10.1177/0333102415618952, fulltext


Haines, A.E., Hornsey, R.L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Quality, quantity and precision of depth perception in stereoscopic displays, Proceedings of the International Conference on 3D Imaging.

Hornsey, R.L., Hibbard, P.B. & Scarfe, P. (2015) Ordinal judgments of depth in monocularly- and stereoscopically-viewed photographs of complex natural scenes, Proceedings of the International Conference on 3D Imaging.

Hornsey R.L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Evaluation of the accuracy of the Leap Motion controller for measurements of grip aperture. In: 12th European Conference on Visual Media Production, 24th-25th November 2015, London, doi:, fulltext

Hunter, D.W. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Distribution of independent components of binocular natural images, Journal of Vision, 15(13):6, 1-31, doi:10.1167/15.13.6, fulltext

Jonas, C.N. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Migraine in synesthetes and nonsynesthetes: a prevalence study, Perception, 44, 1179-1202, fulltext

Hibbard, P.B. & O'Hare, L. (2015) Uncomfortable images produce non-sparse responses in a model of primary visual cortex, Royal Society Open Science, 2: 140535. fulltext


T Zhang T., O’Hare, L., Hibbard, P.B., Nefs, H.T. & Heynderickx, I. (2014) Depth of Field Affects Perceived Depth in Stereographs,  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP) 11(4), 18 doi:10.1145/2667227

Hibbard, P.B., Scott-Brown, K.C., Haigh, E.C. & Adrain, M. (2014) Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms, PLOS ONE, 9(1): e84087. doi: 10.1471/journal.pone/0084087

Goutcher, R. & Hibbard, P.B. (2014) Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement, Frontiers in Psychology, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01014.


Vishwanath, D. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Seeing in 3D with just one eye: stereopsis without binocular vision, Psychological Science, 24(9), 1673-1685.

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Reverse correlation reveals how observers sample visual information when estimating three-dimensional shape, Vision Research, 86, 115-127.

O’Hare L. Zhang T. Nefs H.T. & Hibbard P.B. (2013) Visual discomfort and depth-of-field, i-Perception, 4(3), 156–169.

O'Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Visual Discomfort and blur, Journal of Vision, 13(5):7, 1-12.

O'Hare, L., Clarke, A.D. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Visual search and visual discomfort, Perception, 42, 1-15.


Bannerman, R.L, Hibbard, P.B., Chalmers, K. and Sahraie, A. (2012) Saccadic latency is modulated by emotional content of spatially filtered face stimuli, Emotion, 12(6), 1384-1392

Hibbard, P.B., Goutcher, R., O’Kane, L.M. and Scarfe, P. (2012) Misperception of aspect ratio in binocularly viewed surfaces, Vision Research, 70, 34-43

May, K.A., Zhaoping, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2012) Perceived Direction of Motion Determined by Adaptation to Static Binocular Images,Current Biology, 22(1), 28-32.

Harris, J.M., Chopin, A. Zeiner, K. & Hibbard, P.B. (2012) Perception of relative depth interval: systematic biases in perceived depth,The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(1), 73-91


O’Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2011). Spatial frequency and visual discomfort. Vision Research, 51, 1767-1777

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B.. (2011). Statistically optimal integration of biased sensory estimates. Journal of Vision 11(7), 12, 1-17

Keefe, B.D., Hibbard, P.B. & Watt S.J. (2011). Depth-cue integration in grasp programming: No evidence for a binocular specialism.Neuropsychologia 49 (5), 1246-1257


Sahraie, A., Hibbard, P.B., Trevethan, C.T., Ritchie, K.L. & Weiskrantz, L. (2010) Consciousness of the first-order in blindsight.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America, 49, 21217-21222

Goutcher, R. & Hibbard, P.B. (2010). Evidence for relative disparity matching in the perception of an ambiguous stereogram. Journal of Vision 10 (12): 35, 1-15

O’Kane L.M. & Hibbard, P.B. (2010) Contextual effects on perceived three-dimensional shape,Vision Research, 50, 1095-1100


Hibbard, P. B. (2008). Binocular energy responses to natural images.Vision Research, 48: 1427-1439

Hibbard, P. B. (2008). Can appearance be so deceptive? Representationalism and binocular vision. Spatial Vision 21 (6): 549-559


O’Kane L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2007) Vertical disparity affects shape and size judgments across surfaces separated in depth, Perception, 46, 696-702

Curran, W., Hibbard, P.B. & Johnston, A. (2007) The visual processing of motion-defined transparency, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 1049-1056

Hibbard, P.B. (2007) A statistical model of binocular disparity, Visual Cognition, 15, 149-165


Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw,  M.F. (2006) 2-D tilt and 3-D slant illusions in perception and action tasks, Perception, 35, 1297-1305

Bradshaw, M.F., Hibbard, P.B., Parton, A.D., Rose, D. & Langley, K (2006) Surface orientation, modulation frequency and the detection and perception of depth defined by binocular disparity and motion parallax, Vision Research, 46, 2626-2644

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B. (2006) Disparity-defined objects moving in depth do not elicit three-dimensional shape constancy, Vision Research, 46, 1599-1610


Hibbard, P.B. (2005) The orientation bandwidth of cyclopean channels, Vision Research, 45, 2780-2785

Hibbard, P.B. & Bouzit, S. (2005) Stereoscopic correspondence for ambiguous targets is affected by elevation and fixation distance,Spatial Vision, 18, 399-412


Bradshaw, M.F., Elliot, K.M., Watt, S.J., Hibbard, P.B., Davies, I.R.L. and Simpson, P.J. (2004) Binocular cues and the control of prehension, Spatial Vision, 17, 95-110


Rose, D., Bradshaw, M.F. & Hibbard, P.B. (2003) Attention modulates the stereoscopic depth aftereffect, Perception, 35, 635-640

Hibbard P.B. & Bradshaw M.F. (2003) Reaching for virtual objects: binocular disparity and the control of prehension, Experimental Brain Research, 148:196-201


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F., Langley, K. & Rogers, B.J. (2002) The stereoscopic anisotropy — individual differences and underlying mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 28, 469-476

Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw, M.F. (2002) Isotropic integration of binocular disparity and retinal motion in the perception of three-dimensional shape. Spatial Vision, 15, 205-218

Bradshaw, M, Hibbard, P, Van Der Willigen, R, Watt, S & Simpson, P (2002). The stereoscopic anisotropy affects manual pointing.Spatial Vision, 15, 443-58

Bradshaw, M.F., Hibbard, P.B. & Gillam, B. (2002) Perceptual latencies to discriminate surface orientation in stereopsis. Perception and Psychophysics, 62, 32-40


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F. & Eagle, R.A. (2000) Cue-combination in the motion correspondence problem. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 267, 1369-1374


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F. & DeBruyn, B. (1999) Global motion processing is not tuned for binocular disparity. Vision Research, 39, 961-974

Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw, M.F. (1999) Does binocular disparity facilitate the detection of transparent motion? Perception, 28, 183-192

Everatt, J., Bradshaw, M.F., & Hibbard, P.B. (1999) Visual processing and dyslexia. Perception, 28, 243-254

Langley, K., Fleet, D.J. and Hibbard, P.B. (1999) Stereopsis from contrast envelopes. Vision Research, 39, 2313-2324


Everatt, J., Bradshaw. M.F. & Hibbard, P.B. (1998) Individual differences in reading and eye movement control, in Eye Guidance in Reading, Driving and Scene Perception (ed. G. Underwood), p223-242, Oxford: Elsevier

Hibbard, P.B. & Langley.K. (1998) Plaid slant thresholds can be predicted from components. Vision Research, 38, 1073-1084

Langley, K., Fleet, D.J. and Hibbard, P.B. (1998) Linear and nonlinear transparencies in stereopsis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 1837-1845


Langley, K., Fleet, D.J., & Hibbard, P.B. (1996) Linear filtering precedes nonlinear processing in early vision. Current Biology, 6, 891-896

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