Academic Staff

Dr Clara Sandoval LLB (Javeriana University, Colombia), MA (Essex), PhD (Essex)

Position in departmentActing Director of the Human Rights Centre (2016-2017) and Co-Director of the Essex Transitional Justice Network
Staff positionSenior Lecturer
Telephone01206 874218
Office hoursAcademic Support:By appointment only. Please email for an appointment

Clara Sandoval is a qualified lawyer and a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law at Essex University, Acting Director of the Human Rights Centre, Co-Director of the Essex Transitional Justice Network and former Director of the LLM in International Human Rights Law. She teaches and researches on areas related to the Inter-American System of Human Rights, Legal Theory, Reparations, Business and Human Rights and Transitional Justice.

Most of her recent scholarship has been focused on reparations for gross human rights violations by the State and by TNCs. She was a visiting professional at the International Criminal Court in 2005, providing the Court with analysis on the award of reparations for gross human rights violations by regional human rights courts, and has equally worked as a consultant for the ICC in the area of reparations.

Besides her academic commitments, Clara also engages in human rights litigation, training and capacity building with organisations such as REDRESS and the IBA and has been a consultant for the UN OHCHR for which she wrote the Special Issue on Transitional Justice and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the UN Guidance Note of the Secretary-General on Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence.

More recently, Clara also worked as a consultant to the Transitional Justice of the Ministry of Justice in Colombia providing advice on transitional justice issues during the peace negotiations with the FARC.

Clara is co-investigator and leads on the Americas part of a major three years ESRC funded ‘Human Rights Law Implementation Project’ which looks at the factors that hinder or enable implementation of reparation orders/recommendations (in individual cases/petitions/communications) of regional systems and UN treaty bodies. The Americas the team is looking at Canada, Colombia and Guatemala. From October 2017 Clara will also be involved on the AHRC funded project “Reparations, Responsibility and Victimhood in Transitional Justice” which will study, among others, the domestic reparation programmes in Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, Nepal, Northern Ireland and Uganda.

Clara is currently working on a co-authored booked on Reparations for Victims of Armed Conflicts (Third volume of the Max Planck Trialogues on the Law of Peace and War) written by Sandoval, C., Furuya, S., and Correa, C., to be published by Cambridge University Press in 2018.
Research interests
  • Public International Law
  • International Human Rights Law
  • Transitional Justice
  • Legal Theory
  • Constitutional Law
  • Business and Human Rights
  • Reparations
Teaching responsibilities

Clara teaches on different modules but she is the module director of Transitional Justice (LW927) and the Inter-American System of Human Rights (LW920).


Forthcoming publications:

  • Sandoval, C., Furuya, S., and Correa, C., Reparations for Victims of Armed Conflicts (Third volume of the Max Planck Trialogues on the Law of Peace and War), to be published by CUP in 2018.
  • Doctrine, Practice, and Advocacy in the Inter-American Human Rights System, co-authored with Bettinger-Lopez, C., Cavallaro, J., Duhaime, B., Dulitzky, A., and Nadeo, C., (OUP, forthcoming 2017).
  • Sandoval, C., “Reflections on the Transformative Potential of Transitional Justice and the Nature of Social Change in Times of Transition” in Transitional Justice in Context (New York, ICTJ, forthcoming 2017).

Published pieces:

  • Sandoval, C., “Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Reflections on the Jurisprudential Turn of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights on Domestic Reparation Programmes” in The International Journal of Human Rights, 2017
  • Sandoval, C., Murray, R and Leach, P., “The Duty to Investigate Right to Life Violations Across Three Regional Systems: Harmonisation or Fragmentation of International Law” in Carla Buckley, Philip Leach and Alice Donald, Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law: Approaches of Regional and International Systems (Brill, 2016), Published as part of the Nottingham Studies on Human Rights Series (edited by Michael O’Flaherty and David Harris), pp. 33-67.
  • Sandoval, C., and Michalowski, S., “Can Colombia’s New Peace Agreement Hold All Parties to Account?”, The Conversation, 25 November 2016, available at:
  • Sandoval, C., “Facing the Justice Dilemma,” first issue of, Oxford Transitional Justice Research, the Foundation Hirondelle and the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, April 2015 available at:
  • Sandoval, C., “Transitional Justice and Social Change”, special issue of journal 20 SUR International Journal on Human Rights (2014), pp. 181-193.
  • Sandoval, C., Wragge, J., and Valle, M., “Algunas Reflexiones sobre el Caso García Lucero y Otras c. Chile”, 6 Revista Infojus (2014), pp. 193-215, 7,166 words.
  • Sandoval, C., with Filippini, L., and Vidal, R., “Linking Transitional Justice and Corporate Accountability” in Sabine Michalowski (ed.), Corporate Accountability in the Context of Transitional Justice (London, Routledge, 2013), pp. 9-26.
  • Sandoval, C., and Surfleet, G., “Corporations and Redress in Transitional Justice Processes” in Sabine Michalowski (ed.), Corporate Accountability in the Context of Transitional Justice (London, Routledge, 2013), pp. 74-92.
  • Sandoval, C., “The Inter-American System of Human Rights and Approach”, in Scott Sheeran and Nigel Rodley (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of International Human Rights Law (London, Routledge, 2013), pp. 427-443.
  • Sandoval, C., and Rubio, R., “Engendering the Reparations Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The Promise of the Cotton Field Judgment.” 33 Human Rights Quarterly (2011), pp. 1062-1091.
  • Sandoval, C., “La justicia transicional y las violaciones de derechos económicos, sociales y culturales”, 18(6) Aportes - Due Process of Law Foundation (2013), pp. 8-11.
  • Sandoval, C., “Reflexiones en Torno de la Ley de Justicia y Paz”, 19 Revista de Derecho Comparado (2011), 8.000 words.
  • Sandoval, C., and Duttwiler, M., “Redressing Non-Pecuniary Damages of Torture Survivors: The Practice of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, in Geoff Gilbert, Francoise Hampson, and Clara Sandoval, (eds.), The Delivery of Human Rights: Essays in Honour of Professor Sir Nigel Rodley (London, Routledge, 2010), p. 114-136.
  • Sandoval, C., Rubio-Marín, R., and Diaz, C., “Repairing Family Members: Gross Human Rights Violations and Communities of Harm”, in Ruth Rubio (ed.), The Gender of Reparations (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 215-290.
  • Sandoval, C., “The Challenge of Impunity in Peru: The Significance of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights”, 5(1) Essex Human Rights Review (2008), available in print and online at:
  • Sandoval, C., “The Concepts of ‘Injured Party’ and ‘Victim’ of Gross Human Rights Violations in the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights: A Commentary on their Implications for Reparations” in C. Ferstman, A Stephens, and M. Goetz (eds.), Reparations for Victims of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes: Systems in Place and Systems in the Making (The Netherlands, Brill, 2008), pp. 243-282.
  • Sandoval, C., “A Critical View of the Protection of Refugees and IDPs by the Inter-American System of Human Rights: Re-assessing its Powers and Examining the Challenges for the Future”, 17(1) International Journal of Refugee Law (2005), pp. 43-66.
  • Sandoval, C., “Construyendo un discurso contra-hegemónico del derecho en América Latina: Comentarios y alternativas a la propuesta sobre la consolidación de los Estudios Jurídicos Críticos”, in M García Villegas, and C Rodríguez (eds.), Derecho y Sociedad en América Latina: Un Debate Sobre los Estudios Jurídicos Críticos, (ed.). (2003) (Santafe de Bogotá - ILSA - Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2003) p. 183-199.
  • Sandoval, C., and Guardiola, O., Globalización y Teoría del derecho (Uniandes, siglo del hombre, 2003). (Translation of William Twining`s book “Globalisation and Legal Theory” with a 50,000 words preliminary study I co-author with Oscar Guardiola on the legal studies movement in the UK and of the role of “law in context”).
  • Sandoval, C., “Interpretación del Artículo 3 Común a los Convenios de Ginebra: Una Panorámica de la Guerra que se Vive en el Derecho Humanitario” in C Sandoval, D Lopez, O Guardiola and R Botero, (eds.), La Otra Guerra: El Derecho Como Continuación del Conflicto y Lenguaje de la Paz (Bogota, Plaza y Janes, 1999), p. 311-354.

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