Dr Dawn Holford

Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Department of Psychology
Dr Dawn Holford
  • Email

  • Telephone

    +44 (0) 1206 873798

  • Location

    3.710C, Colchester Campus



I am interested in how people process quantifiers from a cognitive and psycholinguistic perspective, and how this affects their use of quantified information in judgement and decision-making. My PhD draws on dual-process and pragmatic inference theories to investigate how food quantity information presented in different formats and frames affects the cognitive processing of this information. My other interests include language processes, tactical decision-making in sport, and the heuristics of choice and decision-making.


  • BAcc Singapore Management University,

  • BBM Singapore Management University,

  • Graduate Diploma in Psychological Science Deakin University,

  • MSc Psychology University of Essex,

  • PhD in Psychology University of Essex, (2020)


University of Essex

  • Graduate Lab Assistant, Psychology, University of Essex (3/10/2016 - 30/9/2019)

  • Lecturer, Psychology, University of Essex (1/10/2019 - present)

Other academic

  • Postgraduate Research Assistant, Psychology, University of Essex (1/1/2016 - 30/9/2019)

Research and professional activities

Conferences and presentations

A process-tracing test of dual-process and pragmatic accounts for processing verbal and numerical probabilities

European Group of Process Tracing Conference, European Group of Process Tracing Conference, Dresden, Germany, 11/7/2019

Low energy or 20% calories? How quantifier format moderates the framing effect.

Invited presentation, Decisions, Attitudes, Risk & Thinking (DART) Seminar series, London, United Kingdom, 2018

Eye-tracking evidence for differences in the processing of verbal or numerical quantified phrases.

European Group of Process Tracing Conference, Aarhus, Denmark, 2018

Quantifiers matter in attribute framing: Effects of magnitude and directionality.

ESCON Transfer of Knowledge Conference, Cologne, Germany, 2018

Consumer misinterpretations of verbal nutrition quantities.

British Psychological Society Division of Health Psychology Annual Conference, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 2018

The language of food quantities.

University of Essex Department of Psychology Research Seminar Series, Colchester, United Kingdom, 2018

Activity labels do not prime exercise more than calorie labels.

Experimental Psychology Society Meeting, London, United Kingdom, 2017

Intuitive words and analytical numbers: Decisions with GDAs

Summer Institute for Bounded Rationality, Berlin, Germany, 2017

Want to prime exercise? Calorie labels work better than activity ones!

Cognitive Science Society Annual Conference, London, United Kingdom, 2017

Verbal and numerical labels and the heuristics of food quantity decision.

26th Subjective Probability, Utility, and Decision Making Conference, Haifa, Israel, 2017

Framing our food: Does it matter if we use words or numbers?

University of Essex Ada Lovelace Day event, Colchester, United Kingdom, 2017

Do you like it better presented as activity or calories? It depends on the food.

Society for Judgment & Decision Making Annual Conference, Boston, United States, 2016


Journal articles (7)

Liu, D., Juanchich, M., Sirota, M. and Orbell, S., (2021). Differences between decisions made using verbal or numerical quantifiers. Thinking and Reasoning. 27 (1), 69-96

Holford, DL., Juanchich, M. and Sirota, M., (2021). Characteristics of quantifiers moderate the framing effect. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

Liu, D., Juanchich, M., Sirota, M. and Orbell, S., (2020). The Intuitive Use of Contextual Information in Decisions made with Verbal and Numerical Quantifiers. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 73 (4), 481-494

Liu Xiaodan, D., Juanchich, M. and Sirota, M., (2020). Focus to an attribute with verbal or numerical quantifiers affects the attribute framing effect. Acta Psychologica. 208, 103088-103088

Liu, D., Juanchich, M., Sirota, M. and Orbell, S., (2019). People Overestimate Verbal Quantities of Nutrients on Nutrition Labels. Food Quality and Preference. 78, 103739-103739

Liu, D. and Juanchich, MMG., (2018). Conceptual understanding and quantity inferences: A new framework for examining consumer understanding of food energy.. Public Health Nutrition. 21 (17), 3168-3177

LIU, D., (2018). Integrating explanations for attribute framing. Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group Quarterly. 108, 22-25

Books (1)

Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Schmid, P., Holford, DL., Finn, A., Leask, J., Thomson, A., Lombardi, D., Al-Rawi, AK., Amazeen, MA., Anderson, EC., Armaos, KD., Betsch, C., Bruns, HHB., Ecker, UKH., Gavaruzzi, T., Hahn, U., Herzog, S., Juanchich, M., Kendeou, P., Newman, EJ., Pennycook, G., Rapp, DN., Sah, S., Sinatra, GM., Tapper, K. and Vraga, EK., (2021). The COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook. A practical guide for improving vaccine communication and fighting misinformation. SciBeh

Book chapters (1)

LIU, D., (2009). Sport and technology. In: Technology in a Changing World. Editors: Shahi, G. and Pang, EF., . GBI Books & Wee Kim Wee Centre. 45- 60

Reports and Papers (1)

Holford, DL., Juanchich, M., Foulsham, T., Sirota, M. and Clarke, ADF., Eye Tracking of Quantifier Formats

+44 (0) 1206 873798


3.710C, Colchester Campus