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# Glossing sentences word-by-word

To gloss a sentence is to annotate it word-by-word. Most commonly, a sentence in a foreign language is followed by a word-for-word translation (with the words lined up vertically) and then a smooth translation (not lined up), like this: 1 Dit is een Nederlands voorbeeld. This is a Dutch example. This is an example in Dutch.' That particular example would be typed as:

\gll Dit is een Nederlands voorbeeld.
This is a Dutch example.
\glt This is an example in Dutch.'
\glend

Notice that the words do not have to be typed lining up; instead, TEX counts them. If the words in the two languages do not correspond one-to-one, you can use curly brackets to show the intended grouping. For example, to print Dit is een voorbeeldje in het Nederlands. This is a little example in Dutch. This is a little example in Dutch.' you would type:
\gll Dit is een voorbeeldje     in het Nederlands.
This is a {little example} in {}  Dutch.
\glt This is a little example in Dutch.'
\glend

All together, covington.sty gives you five macros for dealing with glosses:
• SPMquot" introduces two lines of words vertically aligned, and activates an environment very similar to flushleft.
• SPMquot" is like SPMquotgll" except that it introduces three lines of lined-up words (useful for cited forms, morphology, and translation).
• SPMquot" ends the set of lined-up lines and introduces a line (or more) of translation.
• SPMquot" is like SPMquot" but does not start a new line (useful when no translation follows but you want to put a number on the right).
• SPMquot" ends the special flushleft-like environment.
Here are several examples. First, a sentence with three lines aligned, instead of just two: Hoc est aliud exemplum. n.sg.nom 3.sg n.sg.nom n.sg.nom This is another example. This is another example.' This is typed as:
\glll  Hoc est aliud exemplum.
n.sg.nom 3.sg n.sg.nom n.sg.nom
This is another example.
\glt   This is another example.'
\glend

Next, an example with a gloss but no translation, with an example number at the right: Hoc habet numerum. This has number () That one was typed as:
\gll  Hoc habet numerum.
This has number
\gln  \hfill (\exampleno)
\glend

Finally we'll put a glossed sentence inside the example environment, which is a very common way of using it:

This last example was, of course, typed as:
\begin{example}
\gll  Hoc habet numerum praepositum.
This has number preposed
\glt  This one has a number in front of it.'
\glend
\end{example}

Notice that every glossed sentence begins with either SPMquot" or SPMquot", then contains either SPMquot" or SPMquot", and ends with SPMquot". Layout is critical in the part preceding SPMquot" or SPMquot`", and fairly free afterward.

Next: Phrase structure rules Up: Typing Linguistics with covington.sty Previous: The examples environment

1998-12-22