Electoral Malpractice and Electoral Manipulation
in New and Semi-Democracies
Principal Researcher: Sarah Birch.
This project, which began in April 2007, is designed to investigate electoral malpractice and manipulation in new and semi-democracies.
It aims to delineate the mechanisms of electoral malpractice and manipulation, the frequency of different forms of malpractice, and the manipulation strategies employed by political actors under different conditions. It also explores the causes and the consequences of electoral malpractice, together with the viability of different types of reform.
employs a variety of data, including existing datasets and a new
created specifically for this research.
website provides access to the Index of Electoral Malpractice database,
includes data on 15 different forms of electoral malpractice in 136
held between 1995 and 2006 in 57 new and semi-democracies in three
the world: Latin America,
The database has been generated by coding election observation reports conducted by international organizations in the regions under consideration (see the Methodology page for details).
The 'Summary of Findings' and 'Working Papers' pages contain the results of the project so far.
All comments and enquiries should be addressed to Sarah Birch, email bircsi (non-Essex users add @essex.ac.uk).